(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of Providence, June 23 and 24, 1886"



i •: 






III 




*.^, 




I 



TWO HUN11RKI) AND FIFTIETH 



ANNIVERSARY 



Settlement of Providence. 



June 23 and 24, 





Ui'obftmcr : 



PRINTED US AUTHORITY OF THE lll\ h'I'MI 

MDCCCLXXXVII 



F*7 






PROVIDENCE PRESS COMPANY, 
PRINTERS TO THE CITY. 



THE CITY OF PROVIDENCE. 



K ESOLUTTONS U F T HE CI T Y C U U N C I L , 



No. 347. 

[Approved September 10, 18S5.J 

Resolved, That Aldermen Thomas B. Ross and Henry T. Root, with 
Messrs. Arthur H. Watson, William B. Blanding and Augustus S. Miller, 
of the Common Council, be and hereby are appointed a committee to inquire into 
and report to the present City Council what action should be taken by the City Gov- 
ernment for a proper observance of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
settlement of Providence. 



No. 51. 

[Approved February 2, 1S86.J 

Resolved. That Aldermen Thomas B. Ross and Henry T. Root, with 
Messrs. Arthur II Watson, William B. Blanding and Augustus S. Miller, 
of the Common Council, be and they hereby are appointed a committee of arrange- 
ments for a municipal celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
founding of Providence, in accordance with the plan recommended in the report of 
the joint special committee presented to the City Council December 17. i88v 



No. 350. 
[Approved July 31, iS86.] 

Resolved, That the joint special committee of the City Council to celebrate the 
two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Providence, be and they 
hereby are authorized to cause to be printed 1,500 copies of the proceedings in com- 
memoration of said event; the expense of the same to be charged to the appropria- 
tion for printing. 

True copies. Witness : 

HENRY V. A. JOSLIN, 

City Clerk. 



COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS 

3 

Thomas B. Ross, Chairman, 
Henry T. Root, 
Arthur H. Watson, 
William B. Blanding, 
Augustus S. Miller. 

Clerk of the Committee, 
Daniel F. Hayden. 



SUB-COMMITTEE TO PRINT PROCEEDINGS 



Augustus S. Miller, Chairman, 
Arthur H. Watson. 

Clerk of the Committee, 
Henry V. A. Joslin. 



CONTENTS. 



MESSAGE OF HON. THOMAS A. DOYLE, MAYOR. SUGGEST 
ING CELEBRATION* ....... 

COMMITTEE TO REPORT A PLAN FOR OBSERVANCE OF ANNI- 
VERSARY ........ 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE SUBMITTING PLAN FOR OBSERV- 
ANCE OF ANNIVERSARY ...... 

COMMITTEE APPOINTED TO ARRANGE FOR CELEBRATION . 

PROGRAMME ARRANGED BY THE COMMITTEE 



FIRST DAY. 



HISTORICAL EXERCISES, AT THE FIRST BAPTIST 
MEETING-HOUSE. 



PROCESSION FROM CITY HALL 

MEMORIAL MARCH 

VOLUNTARY OF PSALM ioo 

ADDRESS BY HON. GILBERT F. ROBBINS. ACTING MAYOR 

SALUTATORY ODE, " ClTV of Freedom" 

PRAYER ...... 

DEVOTIONAL ODE, " O, Life and Light " 

HISTORICAL DISCOURSE BY HON. THOMAS DURFEE 

VALEDICTORY ODE ... 

DOXOLOGY 

BENEDICTION .... 



•9 
"•9 
67 

79 
83 
101 
105 
115 
163 

'75 

179 



VIII 



CONTENTS. 



EXERCISES BY THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS AT ROGER 
WILLIAMS PARK. 



PROCESSION . 

PRAYER ... 

ADDRESS BY REV. JAMES G. VOSE .... 

ADDRESS AND AWARDING DIPLOMAS BY NICHOLAS VAN 

SLYCK, PRESIDENT OF THE SCHOOL COMMITTEE 
NAMES OF GRADUATES ..... 

CONCERT BY THE RHODE ISLAND CHORAL ASSOCIATION 



PAGE. 

■33 
1 84 
186 

196 

200 
205 



SECOND DAY. 



MILITARY AND CIVIC PROCESSION 
TRADES PROCESSION 

REVIEW 



209 
218 
235 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 
ANNIVERSARY 

OF THE 

Settlement of Providence. 



On the sixteenth day of July, 1885, the Mayor sent the 
following message to the City Council : 

City of Providence, 

Executive Department, City Hall, 

July 15, 18S5. 

Gentlemen of the City Council: 

The year 1886 will be the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of 
the settlement of Providence. The precise day on which the event 
occurred is unknown. Staples, in his "Annals of the Town of Provi- 
dence," in referring to the landing of Roger Williams, says that " in 
the latter part of the spring or the commencement of summer of the 
year 1636, he landed for the first time within the limits of Providence, 
with intent to commence a settlement." Prof. J. Lewis Diman, in his 
address at the unveiling of the Roger Williams monument, said : " It 
was in the spring of 1636 that Roger Williams, accepting the hint 
privately conveyed from Winthrop as a 'voice from God,' began to 
build and plant on the eastern bank of the Seekonk, a little distance 
from the present Central bridge. But upon receiving from the authori- 
ties of Plymouth a friendly intimation that he had settled within their 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



bounds, he cheerfully, though with great inconvenience to himself, set 
out in quest of another habitation. Early in the month of June, when 
external nature in this region is decked in her loveliest attire, he 
launched on this brief but memorable voyage." 

The same distinguished orator, in speaking of the government here 
established at that time, uses these words : "Thus for the first time in 
history, a form of government was adopted which drew a clear and 
unmistakable line between the temporal and the spiritual power, and a 
community came into being which was an anomaly among the nations. 
The compact signed by the pilgrims in the cabin of the Mayflower has 
been praised as the earliest attempt to institute a government on the 
basis of the general good. Surely the covenant subscribed to by the 
settlers of Providence deserves a place beside it as a first embodiment 
in an actual experiment of the great principle of unrestricted religious 
liberty. In either case the settlements were small and the immediate 
results were unimportant ; but the principles were world-wide in their 
application. The Providence document was, in fact, the more signifi- 
cant, since the political maxim that lay embedded in the Mayflower 
compact was implied rather than consciously affirmed, while the princi- 
ple to which Roger Williams and his associates set their hands was 
intentionally and deliberately adopted as the corner-stone of the new 
structure they were building." 

The little settlement then established has grown to be the second 
city in New England, and more than one hundred thousand people 
who here find a home should celebrate with appropriate ceremonies the 
two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Providence 
Plantations. Two of our historical associations have already passed 
resolutions declaratory of their desire that a proper recognition of the 
event should be made. 

Believing that it will be the wish of all our citizens that whatever 
ceremonies are held should be under the direction of the authorities of 
the city, and that ample time should be given to a proper consideration 
of the matter, I recommend that a joint committee of the city council 
be appointed, with instructions to inquire into and report before the 






ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



close of the present municipal year the action to be taken by the city 
council, in order that there may be a recognition of the founding of 
the city and State worthy of their high and prosperous condition. 

Thomas A. Doyle, 

Mayor. 

Upon the reading of the message both branches of the 
city council passed the following resolution, which was approvd 
September 10, 1885 : 

Resolved, That Aldermen Thomas B. Ross and Henry T. Root, 
with Messrs. Arthur H. Watson, William B. Blanding and Augustus 
S. Miller, of the common council, be and are hereby appointed a com- 
mittee to inquire into and report to the present city council what 
action should be taken by the city government for a proper observance 
of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of 
Providence. 

This committee organized by the choice of Aldermen 
Thomas B. Ross, Chairman, and selected Mr. Daniel F. Hay- 
den to act as Clerk. 

In formulating the plan for a proper observance of the 
anniversary of the founding of the city,the committee received 
valuable assistance from His Honor the Mayor, Thomas A. 
Doyle, and on the seventeenth day of December, 1885, the 
committee presented a report as follows : 

To the Honorable the City Council : 

The joint special committee of the city council, appointed by 
resolution No. 347, approved September 10, 18S5, to inquire into and 
report what action should be taken by the city government for the 
proper observance of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
founding of Providence, respectfully report : 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



That they have given the matter due consideration ; have held 
several public meetings, at which suggestions were presented relative 
to a municipal celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary 
of the founding of Providence by committees representing the Rhode 
Island Historical Society, the Veteran Citizens' Association, and other 
organizations ; that they have also listened to the views entertained 
respecting the proposed celebration by representative business men, 
as well as a number of citizens, and are unanimously of the opinion 
that the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Provi- 
dence should be observed in a manner befitting so important an occa- 
sion, and worthy of the city. 

The committee are of the opinion that in view of the magnitude of 
the affair and in accordance with the custom adopted by other cities, 
that have not attained the eminent position and advanced age that 
Providence enjoys, that the celebration should consist of a festival, 
covering a period of two days. At the suggestion of the historical 
societies, both of which have heartily cooperated with the committee 
in promoting this movement, it is recommended that the first day be 
devoted to literary and historical exercises in the First Baptist Meeting- 
House, with an historical address giving a complete history of the city, 
together with appropriate odes, poems and music. In the afternoon of 
the first day it is also recommended that free entertainments for children 
be given in all of the public halls and theatres in the city. 

On the second day the committee recommend that a grand trades 
procession, representative of the past and present industries of Provi- 
dence, together with an elaborate military and civic parade, be made. 
In the afternoon it is recommended that balloon ascensions, band 
concerts and other amusements be provided for the people, and that the 
celebration be brought to a termination by a grand display of fireworks 
in the evening. 

As the date of the celebration has not been definitely decided, 
but as the best historical authorities name the date of the founding of 
Providence as between the twentieth and twenty-fifth of June, the com- 
mittee are of the opinion that the twenty-third and twentv-fourth of 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



June, 18S6, be selected. The committee make this suggestion in view 
of the fact that the twenty-fourth of June will be observed as a festi- 
val day by the French residents and the Masonic fraternity. Rhode 
Island owes a debt of gratitude to France for its aid in our hours of 
trial, and if the ancient and honorable societies_composingthe Masonic 
order, with the French societies, could be induced to make their festi- 
val a part of the city's anniversary celebration, it would greatly enhance 
the character of the observance. 

The committee are of the opinion that this matter of a general 
celebration recommends itself to all who take an active and a lively 
interest in the past, present and future of our city. Apart and outside 
of the present interests that would naturally attach to all such cere- 
monies, those who are thoughtful of the generations to follow them 
should realize that there is nothing more instructive than a knowledge 
of just such events as this celebration will commemorate. It is also 
desirable that the celebration should be made comprehensive, and in a 
good degree present in its leading features an accurate compendium or 
complete history of that which has been achieved since the foundation 
of the city, and give it more than a mere personal interest as connected 
with our institutions, business industries and the families which have 
been and are now actively identified with the welfare of Providence 
And in that connection, in a commonwealth whose family relations are 
so closely connected as are those of Rhode Islanders, many Providence 
families may claim some close identity with the principal events of the 
city during the entire period of its history. 

There can be no greater incentive to future exertions for the 
development of the important interests that have lain dormant and 
but partially cared for, than for the people to know and to see what has 
been done since we have been at work making a city of ourselves. Not 
only will it serve to recall the commercial life of the city, but it is con- 
fidently to be expected that the people of to-day will come forward to 
aid any movement that will inure to the city's advantage, and promote 
the resumption again of the enterprises that half a century ago were so 
successful and prosperous. 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



Such a celebration as the committee recommend, made complete 
in all its details, as this is desired and intended to be, should be entered 
into heartily by all of our citizens, and render it a landmark of fragrant 
remembrance for all those who participate, young and old, as well as an 
occasion of genuine interest to be transmitted throughout the world. 
It should be the aim of the committee of arrangements of the city 
council to so broaden and extend all of their arrangements as to insure 
the generous cooperation of every Rhode Islander, and make the event 
so particularly interesting and entertaining to children that the impres- 
sion made upon their young minds shall never be effaced. 

Without comparing smaller to larger things, let it be made a point 
from which we shall begin a new era, and as was the custom of the old 
Romans, who dated all events from the founding of their city, so let us 
date the dawn of a new life in Providence from the observance of the 
two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the city. 

The celebration recommended will be not only interesting at home, 
but will be of incalculable advantage in spreading abroad through the 
country a knowledge of what we have accomplished during the two 
hundred and fifty years of our active life. A celebration such as 
recommended will attract to Providence universal public attention, and 
prove, perhaps, the means of reviving the interests and associations 
which have gone from us to other cities and states. Especially should it 
be made the means of calling home the sons and daughters of Providence. 

No such celebration can possibly be undertaken in this city and yet 
have the interest confined entirely to this municipality. The State as 
well as the city is interested. All Rhode Islanders are actively and 
directly concerned, and certainly in any such undertaking as this, the 
citizens and the city government may well and confidently expect that 
the State will afford material aid to the city. It is, therefore, not 
unreasonable to expect that our General Assembly will consider this 
anniversary within the scope of their duty, and that to aid and encour- 
age it will be among the privileges of their position, and it is, therefore, 
expected that they will grant from the State treasury such material 
assistance in forwarding the celebration as will contribute to its success. 






ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



Without saying that Providence is the State of Rhode Island, it is, 
however, perfectly in accord with the best sentiment of true Rhode 
Islanders that all over the State there is a manifest and a just pride in 
its chief city, and a desire that here shall be gathered up and recorded 
the history of the State, for the founding of the city of Providence 
was the birth of Rhode Island. 

The committee, after mature deliberation, are of the opinion that 
to successfully carry out the programme briefly outlined in this report 
will require not less than ten thousand dollars, irrespective of what 
may be contributed by the legislature. 

They, therefore, recommend the passage of the accompanying 
resolution directing that application be made to the General Assembly, 
at its January session, 1886, for authority to appropriate ten thousand 
dollars for the purpose of celebrating the two hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary of the founding of Providence ; and the committee also 
recommend the passage of the accompanying memorial to the legislature 
requesting an appropriation from the State of not less than five thou- 
sand dollars for the observance of the occasion, in addition to the 
amount to be appropriated by the city council. 

Respectfully submitted for the committee, 

Thomas B. Ross, Chairman, 
Henry T. Root, 
Arthur H. Watson, 
William B. Blanding, 
Augustus S. Miller, 

Committee. 

Daniel F. Hayden, Clerk. 

In accordance with the recommendation in this report, 
application was made to the General Assembly for authority to 
appropriate ten thousand dollars for the proposed celebration, 
and on February 2, 1886, the Mayor approved the following 
resolution : 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTITH 



Resolved, That Aldermen Thomas B. Ross and Henry T. Root, 
with' Messrs. Arthur H. Watson, William B. Blanding and Augustus 
S. Miller, of the common council, be and they are hereby appointed a 
committee of arrangements for a municipal celebration of the two 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Providence, in 
accordance with the plan recommended in the report of the joint special 
committee presented to the city council December 17, 1S85. 

This committee, composed of the same persons as the 
former committee, immediately organized in the same manner 
as before, and proceeded to arrange the details for a celebration 
on the twenty-third and twenty-fourth days of June, 1886, in 
accordance with the plan and suggestions contained in the 
preceding report. 

In the arrangement of these details the committee again 
sought the advice and counsel of Mayor Doyle, who rendered 
them valuable assistance in maturing the plans for the celebra- 
tion. The Rhode Island Historical Society, the Providence 
Veteran Citizens' Association, the School Committee, and the 
various military and civic organizations of the city, also gave 
the committee their hearty cooperation. 

Just before the completion of the plan for the celebration, 
the committee, in common with the whole city, met with a great 
loss in the death of the Mayor, Hon. Thomas A. Doyle, which 
occurred on the ninth day of June. 

Identified as he had been from his earliest manhood with 
the government of the municipality, he had so completely won 
the hearts of the people that when he was taken away the sor- 
row was universal. The death of him who above all others 
would have rejoiced in the anniversary festival of the founding 
of Providence, left a void which no man could fill. 

The programme of the exercises arranged by the com- 
mittee was as follows: 




lit 



\wrTr v VM.1^ v mSHHkVv 







^*. 







H 



LLiuJlLMiJ±li 



;~-v^:. .-- -Ci£r;.- ;;:-^p- -*.& 



i # 

••Y\.\\,V-< 




ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



FIRST DAY. 
Wednesday, June j;. 1SS6. 



Gen. Elisha II. Rhodes, Marshal of the Day. 
Literary and Historical Exercises at the First Baptist Church at 10 A. M. 



1. Memorial March. 
D. \V. Reeves, ........ Conductor. 

2. Voluntary of Psalm 100. 
Music by James O. Starkweather. Sung by the Arion Club. 

Jules Jordan. Director. 

3. Address. 

4. Salutatory Ode. 

Composed by Rev. Frederic Denison. Music by Prof. Albert A. Stanley. 

Sung by the Arion Club. 

5. Prayer. 
By Rev. Dr. Ezekiel G. Robinson, President of Brown University. 

6. Devotional Ode. 

Composed by George S. Burleigh. Music by Edward K. Glezen. 

Sung by the Arion Club. 

7. Historical Address. 
Bv Hon. Thomas Durfee, LL. D., Chief Justice Supreme Court of Rhode Island. 

S. Valedictory Ode. 
Composed by Prof. Alonzo Williams. Music by Eben A. Kelly. 

Sung by the Arion Club. 

9. DOXOLOGY. 

Sung by the Arion Club, Congregation joining. 

10. Benediction. 
By Rev. David H. Greer, of Providence. 



IO 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



EXERCISES OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

At Roger Williams Park, 

Wednesday, June 23. 1886, at 3 p. m. 

Presiding Officer: 
Horace S. Tarbell, Superintendent of Public Schools. 



1. Music. . 

2. Prayer, 

3. Singing, 

4. Address. 

5. Singing, 



By the American Band. 
. By Rev. Daniel Leach, D.D. 
By the Pupils of the Public Schools. 
By Rev. J. G. Yose, D.D. 
By the Schools. 
6. Address and Delivery of Diplomas to High School Graduating 

Class ' ■ By Col. Nicholas Van SUck. 

7' Singing By the Schools. 

8. Delivery of Diplomas to the Graduating Classes of the 

Grammar Schools. 

9. Singing, ... . By the Schools. 
10. Benediction, . . . B Rev s H Webb _ 



Balloon Ascension. 
By Capt. Ezra S. Allen, at 5 p. m. 



Exercises in Infantry Hall, 



Wednesday, June 23. 1SS6, 



at 8 P. m. 



CONCERT 

By - the Rhode Island Choral Association. 

Carl Zerrahn, Director. 

Assisted by Reeves' Orchestra. 

Victor E. Ham.merel, Accompanist. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. II 

PART FIRST. 
i. Overture, " Rosamunde," . .... Schubert. 

Orchestra. 

2. Chorus, "To Thee, O Country," ..... Eickberg. 

C (a) Ave Maria. (Female Voices) 

,^ Soprano Solo bv Mrs. Edward Hoffman. 

3. Chorus, < * 

[ {/,) Vintage Song, ) i''„ r ,7;> [ (Male Voices). Mendelssohn. 

4. Chorus, " Sanctus," (From Messa St. Cecilia), . . . Gounod. 

Tenor Solo bv Thomas E. Johnson. 

f \a) Valse Lente (From Ballet Sylvia,) ) 
;. J y .... Dei 

[(d) Pizzicato (From Ballet Sylvia), J 

Orchestra. 

PART SECOXD. 

1. Chorus. " Peasant's Wedding March,'' .... Soderman. 

2." Chorus. " Ave Verum," ...... Mozart. 

3. Conxert Waltzes, " The Blue Danube." .... Strauss. 

Orchestra. 

4 Chorus, " Lovely Appear." (Redemption >, .... Gounod. 

Soprano Solo by Mrs. Hoffman. 

5. Chorus, " Unfold Ye Portals," (Redemption), . . . Gounod. 



Promenade Concert bv the National Band on Crawford Street Bridge, from S to 

10 p. M. 



SECOND DAY. 

Thursday, June 24. 18S6. 



Grace Church Chimes will be Rung from 9 to 10 A. M , ; to 3 and 5 to 6 p. M. 

MILITARY AND CIVIC PARADE, 10 A. M. 
Col. R. H. I. Goddard, ...... Chief Marshal. 



12 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

Chief of Staff. 
Capt. Benjamin" L. Hall. 

Assistant Marshal. 
Capt. Frederic B. Burt. 

Active Staff, Mounted. 
Honorary Staff. Mounted. 

first Division. 
Col. Joseph H. Kexdrick, Marshal. 

AIDS. 

Reeves' American Band. 

United Train of Artillery, 

Band. 

Governors Foot Guards, of Hartford, Conn. 

Band. 

Worcester Continentals, Worcester, Mass. 

Continental Drum Band. 

Fifth Battalion Infantry, R. I. M. 

Drum Corps. 

Fourth Battalion Infantry, R. I. M. 

Drum Corps. 

Slocum Light Guards. 

Tower Light Infantry. Pawtucket. 

Newport Light Infantry, Newport. 

Bristol Light Infantry, Bristol. 

Co. F., 1st Regiment, M. V. M., Taunton. 

Co. M., 6th Regiment M. V. M., Milford, Mass. 

Lynn Cadet Band. 

First Light Infantry Regiment. 

Honorary Staff. 

Signal Corps. 

Cos. A, B, C and D, F. L. I. Regiment. 

First Machine Gun Platoon, R. I. M. 

Co. M, ist Regiment, M. V. M., Fall River, Mass. 

Co. K, ist Regiment, M. V. M., Boston, Mass. 

Cos. E and F, ist Battalion Infantry, R. I. M., Westerly. 

Drum Corps. 

First Light Infantry Veteran Association. 

Dahlgren Post Drum and Flute Band, Boston, Mass. 

Boston Light Infantry Veteran Association. 






ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 3 

Seventh Regiment Band, of New York. 

Seventh Regiment Veteran Association. New York. 

Seventh Regiment War Veterans. 

Co. B, First Battalion Cavalry, R. I. M. 

Providence Marine Corps of Artillery. 

Providence Marine Corps of Artillery Veteran Association. 

Second Division. 
Col. Theo. A. Barton, Marshal. 

AIDS. 

First Mass. Regiment Band. 
Department of Rhode Island, Grand Army of the Republic, Nineteen 

Posts. 
William A. Streeter Post, G. A. R.. Attleboro, Mass. 

Third Division. 
Capt. Dexter Gorton, Marshal. 

AIDS. 

National Band. 

Veteran Firemen's Association. 

Water Witch Engine Company. 

East Providence Engine Company. 

Continental Drum Band. 

Providence Fire Department. 

Engineers' Association of Rhode Island. 

Fourth Division. 
Lieut. Lewis E. Davis, Marshal. 

AIDS. 

Foxboro Brass Band. 

Uniformed Rank, Knights of Pythias, Five Lodges of Rhode Island and 

one Lodge of Worcester. 

Excelsior Brass Band. 

Odd Fellows, (Colored.) 

Free Masons, (Colored.) 

Band. 

Manchester Unity, I. O. O. F. 

Association of Mechanics and Manufacturers. 






14 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



Fifth Division. 
Gen Nelson Viall, Marshal. 

AIDS. 

Band. 
Order of Alfredians. 

Pipers. 
Caledonian Society- 
Clan Cameron, Xo. 7. and Clan Fraser, No. 11, with Grand Clan of Massachusetts. 

Bristol Band. 

Order of Foresters. 

Westerly Band. 

Order Sons of St. George. 

Providence Leiderkranz Society. 

Providence Social Turn Verein. 

Italian Societies. 

Sixth Division. 
Mr. Benj. W. Gallup, Marshal. 

AIDS. 

Taunton Brass Band. 

Temperance Cadets. 

Civic Temperance Societies. 

Seventh Division. 
Mr. Alfred A. Cvr, Marshal. 

AIDS. 

Napoleon Puiard Band. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste, Centreville. 

Chariot Representing the Landing of Roger Williams. 

Band. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste, Worcester. 

Union St. Joseph. Worcester, Mass. 

Chariot. 

Band. 

Club Nationale, New Bedford, Mass. 

Band. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste, Millbury, Mass. 

Band. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste, Manville, R. I. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



15 



Chariot Representing the Landing of Jaques Cartier Discovering 

Canada. 

Guarde Lafayette, Worcester, Mass 

Chariot Representing the Battle of York town. 

Band. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste, Central Falls. 

Chariot Representing Le Petit St. Jean Baptiste. 

Band. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste, Fall River. 

League des Patriate, Fall River. 

Cercle de Salabery. 

Chariot. 

Band. 

Institu Canadien, Woonsocket. 

Band. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste, Woonsocket. 

Chariot Representing Canada. 



TRADES PROCESSION. 3 P. M. 



Chief Marshal, 



Assistant Marshals. 



First Division, 
Second Division, 
Third Division, 
Fourth Division, 
Fifth Division, 
Sixth Division, 
Seventh Division, 



Fred. E. Keep. 

Charles A. Barden. 
James G. Warren. 
Hoffman S. Dorchester. 
Amos M, Bowen. 
William Millen. 
D. Russell Brown. 
Francis P. Butts. 



Seven Divisions Representing the Industries of Rhode Island. 



Two Balloon Ascensions by Prof. James K. Allen from Dexter Training Ground. 
Music by Taunton Brass Band. 



Firemen's Trial of Hand Engines on Exchange Place, at 6 i>. m. 



FIREWORKS. 

S P. M. 
On Crawford Street Bridge. 



FIRST DAY. 



HISTORICAL EXERCISES 



IN THE 



FIRST BAPTIST MEETING-HOUSE. 



Wednesday, June 23. 



THE FIRST DAY. 



In accordance with the programme arranged by the com- 
mittee, a procession was formed in front of City Hall at 9.30 
o'clock a. M.,and consisted of seven divisions, representing nearly 
five hundred distinguished citizens of the State, many of whom 
had been prominently identified with the growth and develop- 
ment of the city for more than a half century. 

The several divisions marched to the First Baptist Meet- 
ing-House on North Main street in the following order : 

ESCORT. 

Police Department under command of Deputy Chief John T. Brown 

American Band, Bowen R. Church, Leader. 

General Elisha H. Rhodes, Marshal of the Day. 

Colonel Philip S. Chase, Assistant. 

Aids: Fred. M. Rhodes, Harry H. Butts, Arthur Rogers. 

First Division. 

Arthur H. Armington in charge. 
His Honor Gilbert F. Robbins, Acting Mayor. 

Committee of Arrangements : 

Thomas B. Ross, Chairman, Henry T. Root, Arthur H. Watson, Wil- 
liam B. Blanding, Augustus S. Miller, Daniel F. 
Hayden, Secretary. 

Honorable Thomas Durfee, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and 

Orator of the Day. 






20 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



His Excellency the Governor, George Peabody Wetmore, Lieutenant 

Governor Lucius B. Darling, Adjutant General Elisha Dyer, Jr., 

Quartermaster General Charles R. Dennis, Assistant Surgeon 

General George H. Kenyon, Judge Advocate General 

George Lewis Gower, Assistant Adjutant General 

Hunter C. White, Colonels Charles A. Wilson, 

Theodore A. Barton, Isaac L. Goff, of the 

Governor's Personal Staff. 

His Honor Frederic C. Sayles, Mayor of Pawtucket, and Ezekiel G. 

Robinson, D. D., LL. D., President of Brown University. 

Rev. David H. Greer. 

Committee of the Rhode Island Historical Society: 

President William Gammcll, and Messrs. B. B. Hammond, Isaac H. 

Southwick, William Staples, Horatio Rogers, John P. Walker. 

Committee of Rhode Island Veteran Citizens 
Historical Association : 

Secretary Frederic Denison, Thomas J. Hill, Thomas Davis, William 

F. Hammond. 

Second Division. 

George T. Hart in charge. 
Invited Guests. 

State Officers : 

Secretary of State, Joshua M. Addeman ; General Treasurer, Samuel 

Clark ; State Auditor, Samuel H. Cross. 

Members of the State Board of Education. 

Judges of the United States and Supreme Courts. 

Honorable George M. Carpenter, Honorable John H. Stiness, Honora- 
ble Pardon E. Tillinghast, Honorable Charles Matteson, 
Honorable George A. Wilbur. 

Members of the General Assembly. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



21 



Ex-Mayors Honorable Jabcz C. Knight, Honorable George L. Clarke, 
Honorable Amos C. Barstow, Honorable William S. Hayward. 

Third Division. 

Aurion V. Chevers in charge. 

City Sergeant, Edward S. Rhodes. 

City Clerk, Henry V. A. Joslin. 

Board of Aldermen : 

Stillman White, John W. Briggs, 

George E. Martin, George H. Burnham, 

Charles E. Sampson, Franklin A. Chase, 

John M. Brennan. 

Common Council : 
President, Rathbone Gardner. 



William B. Avery, 
James Randall, 
Charles D. Rogers, 
John M. Rounds, 
Alfred Stone, 
Thomas A. Millett, 
Fitz Herbert Peabody, 
Henry C. Armstrong, 
William E. Clarke, 
James McNally, 
George R. Phillips, 
Frederick E. Anthony, 
George L. Pierce, 
David Burton, 
Dexter Gorton, 
Henry Cram, 
Fred. I. Marcy, 
Alfred S. Potter, 



FCphraim B. Moulton, 
Thomas M. Rounds, 
Benjamin E. Kinsley, 
Joseph H. Fanning, 
Ira Winsor, 
Silas H. Manchester, 
William W. Batchelder, 
Edwin Lowe, 
Daniel Perrin, 
Edwin Winsor, 
Albert G. Carpenter, 
Hoffman S. Dorchester, 
Edward D. Bassett, 
Francis W. Miner, 
William L. Whipple, 
John J. Devenish, 
Fergus J. McOsker, 
John Casey. 






2 2 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

City Officials. 

City Auditor, James M. Cross. 

City Treasurer, Benjamin Tripp. 

Judge of the Municipal Court, Joseph E. Spink. 

Superintendent of Health, Charles V. Chapin. 

Recorder of Deeds, Gustavus A. Williamson. 

Chief Engineer of the Fire Department, George A. Steere. 

Deputy Chief Engineer, Holden O. Hill. 

Superintendent of Public Buildings, Obadiah Slade. 

Superintendent of Lights, Samuel B. Swan. 

City Engineer, Samuel M. Gray. 

Harbor Master, James T. P. Bucklin. 

Overseer of the Poor, George W. Wightman. 

Inspector of Buildings, Spencer B. Hopkins. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures, Oliver E. Greene. 

City Registrar, Edwin M. Snow. 

Inspector of Steam Boilers, James H. Munroe. 

Gauger, John E. Burroughs. 

Justices of the Police Court, Elias M. Jenckes, Joseph S. G. Cobb. 

Surveyor of Lumber, Nathaniel C. Bushee. 

Public Administrator, Jonathan G. Parkhurst. 

Inspector of Milk, Edwin E. Calder. 

Inspector of Kerosene, William D. Child. 

Commissioners of North Burial Ground, Oren Westcott, 
Gorham Thurber. 

Viewer of Fences, John H. Cottrell. 

Board of Public Works, Charles E. Carpenter, Clinton D. Sellew, 
Charles H. Hunt. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



23 



Commissioners of Dexter Donation, Benjamin B. Knight, William B. 

Greene, George W. R. Matteson. 

Commissioners of Sinking Funds, Daniel E. Day, Oliver A. 

Washburn, Jr., Jesse Metcalf. 

Commission on Railroad Terminal Facilities, William Goddard, 

Samuel S- Sprague, Harvey E. Wellman. 

License Commissioners, William H. Bowen, Jabez C. Knight. 

Assessors of Taxes, George P. Tew, Charles Dudley. 

Trustees Hartford, Providence and Fishkill Railroad, Henry Lippitt, 

Henry W. Gardner. 

Trustees Springfield Railroad, Royal C. Taft, Robert Knight. 

Superintendent of the Dexter Asylum, John M. Knowles. 

Superintendent of Parks, James B. Hathaway. 



School Committee 



President, Nicholas Van Slyck. 
Secretary, Sarah H Ballou. 



Superintendent, 

Anna E. Aldrich, 
George B. Peck, 
Alfred Metcalf, 
Henry R. Rogers, 
John H. Sweet, 
Charles H. Parkhurst, 
Adeline E. H. Slicer, 
Freeborn Coggeshall, 
Thomas J. Morgan, 
Isaac H. Southwick, Jr., 
Thomas E. Studley, 
Hezekiah U. Monro, 
Zechariah Chafee, Jr., 



Horace S. Tarbell. 

Merrick Lyon, 
William Caldwell, 
J. William Rice, 
Emulous Rhodes, 
George E. Barstow, 
James G. Vose, 
William F. Morrison, 
John C. Thompson, 
Charles H.' Leonard, 
John R. Gladding, 
Henry A. Howland, 
Richard M. Sanders, 
Albert C. Day. 



24 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH. 

Lester S. Hill, Henry W. Rugg, 

Albert F. Blaisdell, Samuel H. Webb, 

James H. Smith, William N. Johnson, 

John A. McCloy, Henry A. Blake, 

Martin C. Day, William Y. Potter, 

Edward B. Knight, Orsmus A. Taft, 

John W. Case, Alexander A. McCaughin, 

John G. Massie, Bernard J. Padien, 

Moses H. Bixby, Thomas J. Bannon, 

Amos M. Bowen, Cornelius A. Murphy, 

Alfred A. Harrington, John Randolph, 
Richard McGuy. 

Teachers in the High and Grammar Schools. 

Fourth Division. 

Edward Field, 2d, in charge. 
Rhode Island Historical Society. 

Fifth Division. 

Fred. A. Arnold in charge. 
Rhode Island Veteran Citizens Historical Society. 

Sixth Division. 

Arthur W. Dennis in charge. 

Barrington Historic Antiquarian Society. 

Young Men's Literary and Social Club of Olneyville. 

Providence Literary Society. 

Franklin Lyceum. 

Young Men's Literary and Social Club. 

Philomathian Association of Bristol. 

West Side Literary Society. 

Irving Literary Society. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 25 



Seventh Division. 

Major William J. Bradford in charge. 

Citizens in General. 

The procession entered the church preceded by the com- 
mittee of arrangements. The following gentlemen were seated 
upon the platform, the remainder of the procession being 
seated in the main body of the church : 

Acting Mayor Gilbert F. Robbins ; the Committee of the City 
Council : Aldermen Thomas B. Ross and Henry T. Root, and Council- 
men Arthur H. Watson, William B. Blanding, Augustus S. Miller, 
and Clerk Daniel F. Hayden ; His Excellency the Governor George 
Peabody Wetmore ; Adjutant General Elisha Dyer, Jr.; Honorable 
Frederic C. Sayles, Mayor of Pawtucket ; the Committee of the 
Rhode Island and Veteran Citizens' Historical Societies : Professor 
William Gammell, General Horatio Rogers, Honorable William Sta- 
ples, Honorable Thomas Davis, Messrs. B. B. Hammond, Thomas J. 
Hill, William S. Hammond, William G. R. Mowry, and Rev. Frederic 
Denison; Chief Justice Thomas Durfee, the Orator of the day ; Rev. 
Drs. E. G. Robinson, David H. Greer, T. Edwin Brown and S. L. 
Caldwell, Honorable George William Curtis, of New York, Honorable 
Nelson W. Aldrich, Mr. Rathbone Gardner, Professor Alonzo Wil- 
liams, General E. H. Rhodes, Marshal of the day. 

When the procession was seated, the church was thrown 
open to the public, and the exercises began with the Memorial 
March. 






MEMORIAL MARCH 



By D. W. Reeves. 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 



Composed in Commemoration of tub 250th Anniversary of the Settlement of Providence, K.I. 

My D. w. Reeves. 

Maestoso moderato. 
(M.M. J= ioo.) 
tr 



Flute (concert 

Piccolo Db 

"Eb Clarinets. 

1st Bb Clarinets. 

2nd Bb Clarinets, 
3rd and itb Bb Clarinets, 

Oboi. 



1st an! 2nd Bb Cornets 

3l 1 and lib Bb Cornets. 

Horns, 1st ami 2nd E b. 
Horns, 3rd and 4th Eb. 

Trombone*. 1st and 2nd. 
Trombones, 3rd anil Bass. 

B b Tenors. 

Baritones. 
Bassi. 

Tympani B b and F. 
Drums. 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MEMORIAL MAR( Fl. 



Solo. 




-a p p *m<» j « « 







altar g 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MKMOIUAL MARCH. 



rg^fefed':2 







MEMORIAL MARCH. 




mf dolce. 



yfejgfe ^d itfe^ 




,i^^m 



ip^ptp^jEg^piggg^ 




'E 



H 



,.> * * ^ .- 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 




^ ==^ EgE?J£3SgE g=*Eg!E^J=^ 



£\ h 



^=5=3 



¥=&£ 



=Jfc 



M=^ 



^^^^E^E£E£E?M 






l^fefe fa^ ^^ 



- <•<•» - - ./<> 



aB 



iSS 



=*• ■>• =*■ 



<"*« - - do* 



f- f * 






53=^ 



^^^§= 



"r-FT f 



be*- $s? 






gs^; 



^ 






3=Sd=d 



=t^ -^S g i t*Sg 






£=EEE 



9tS~ ■ i 



■ cen - - - do, 



^= 



if=*=^ 



^F 



E^^S^^ 



J=*E:S^id 



^ 



:*iteil?^El 



^ 



^^=^^^2^=^ 



sas^^ 



33ESE33 



— I — l — fcr 

cres. 



\\ \~^^ 



=a= 



— Qg 



IF — -n-Jte 



*^f-tt- 



^-e:— r — ■ — — — "• ^ — — r ^ — i — »• 



J^J^^ 



^m 



rrn 



<: g <: < 



dy^a^ 



-> — T 



T » q ^P — =1 =|- 



^ 



F^NMM^ 



1 SIS - ! \1 > 



3^-^ 



_^EiE£ 



d fclkJ.k'3^ 






L ---tiJ^b 



* * 



^^i 



K 



-i — 



& 



«« - - - a?o. 



t 



b=r b=^ 



v^ in .— 

""F ^ 



«« - - ' </<'. 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MEMORIAL MAROH. 



■-ST" 



^ ^ — mfa£^ g#fe 




£ 



e 



£=e£si& 



t r: 






^^^ --^feJB ^ fe^EE^ ^ 



= ^ 



IW 



IPiip 



■<* 



f=— ^— ^-i- 

3 * > — d*--^ 



4 ■ H • * •— "g 



■=**= 



3 3 3 



fefcfci 



feg=EE 



3- 



/jSf 



3 3 3 3 



fff 




t 









3 <* •< 

r rr 



•: ; 



> «J- 



af-1 ^fafc 



■f*— J*-**— t- 



3 3 3 3 



w 



?£==£=£==£= 



1=34 



3 3 3 3 



=>■- 



-*-: -*r « K ■*-- 



3 3 3 3 



r^rr 



j i *^ 



... 



g=-i=^=^S 



-r < »r 



lS>§f||l|§i 



fl BpT c^tr 



^^gg 



X — ** 



3 3 3 3 

8 3 3 9 

- f: f-: 



3 3 3 3 



* 



«r ^""sp ^" 



m^t- 



r r- gJ 



Ur— rr , -rr ± ^S^ 



J^r° 



3 3 3 3 




;££ 



^sgr# 



-. > „ > ,-^. 



-f* 



T -M- 



>_>— -£_«>-£_ 4=- ,_>_>- ^-^ - 



f^ — ^ — t^r 



EfEE*E^pfl^_|^=^ 



3 3 3 3 



E± 



g^E^»,>| 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 



Unuto. 




i 



ffftenuto. 



| ^^^^ fe^^^ ^^ ^^^^] 



^E 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 



mf so slcnuto. 




mf sostemUo. ] n absence of Flute play an octave below 



p H * 3 Z^ " " 



p^§^ 



-T-- 



3 



^ 




^mji 



3E 



r f^ 



Pf 



tgF= = iF=^ 



]3E 



i^^E^E 



■q- -SB- 



Wm 



-T- T- 




11 



PP 

P sostenuto. 



_^_ 



m 



t=^. 



1= 



MEMORIAL MAIK'Ii. 




^*=£ — =j ^| g ^_^ f — i 




m 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 




. - 



^=± 



^B 



F=f= 



ppp 



--tiff- 



P 



±EE 



h^ 



e=« 



pp 



pp 



£ : g 



J ^- -i 



J_J £u. 



Sfe 



ife 



=3= 



£e 



£e 



= 



5^? 



4=5= 




g: 



£ 



ppp 






MEMORIAL MARCH. 




i ,T. 



eg: 



&& 



m 



s 



^^^^=^^^^5^ 



H' 



:* 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 



! 




ii^^m^ 



pp 



m^=^ 



mj 



*J r=- rnf 



St— r 



-* — T- 



:-» 



££6 



Col ist Clarinet. 



■ 4-4-4 



"*? vTvivf 



32? 



^ 



Jg£ 



*J?£ 



Sfe 



& 



J- U 



pp 



=b 



sg=^=3= 



«/ 



^^ 



^pa 



_^a, ^a,^ 






krrt^ 



^ 



^ 






: ■! i - 










MEMORIAL MARCH. 




^l^EEgE ^ l- ^ ~°E^^ 



Z.MMM— mtmtmmtr— (=*5"4e;«r- zmttmlwtL 




t « H«L - 



■ mm m 






$oco 



• poco 



Ttlnzj: 



PP 










MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 





pmmm 



> U tr 



ife#^g 



PPP^ 



f 3 ^ 



fr £ 



^g^ i i^l^Ep^^i 




f: *: £: 



jj^j 



S^ 



h -j - h.. : J > | 



t^et5a 



^^JEEfaE^j 



JgggEE g^glg] 



«*M^ 






£g£ 



^ 



US 



[S^^^fe^^^ 



-3^i 



E^SEE^ 



-Js 6« N . 

*1 « 1 * pF J= 



i=^=3 



g 



£-~ : 



^ffl^=i 



J3J, 






MEMORIAL MARCH. 

dim. 




fioco. 
(In absence of Tvwfani.) 



MEMORIAL march. 




a poco 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 





/* 






3 3 f z 3 »■ ^" 3 3 






'1 



«-£ 



"J * « «* 

7 3 3 




p3= 



/* 



A 




tr. 



k^£ 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 

ir. 



w^= =m 



9m-m- * — • 
4=t"t ': 



»^. m s s > 9 Take 










J?" 



^Hpi> 



//» 






— i - — =t= 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 



Chorus in Unison. 




ff g. 



MKMOlilAI. MARCH. 




y*6 



=P 



H-g 






-«- 






SL 



fe 




^ ^a^^ ^ ^s^^ ^^e^ 










i • 



\..i?.f&Z&--. 






SEm=sazt ; , - 1 StpSttr^SEEr* -TJg ? uLa. — 



te^^^iftg^^fe^q fe^fe ^^ J j 1 




fOr # -^ cfccrLL'* : ' : ^ 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 




^^^^^^^g^fttctffUBsfriTLiJ \[#e&&k 




MEMORIAL MAUI II. 





'&^M^-m0^ 



^eip 



-n 



rAs&pffc; 



■^<£' 



fefefeg 



^ 



> 



JL'i 



^f ~ - 




MEMOKIAL MARCH. 




'®m=mm^ 




^^^S^pfcpppSiiii 



m ^m^^M - 



3^ 



i 1 = 



^ 



#/ 



m & 



MEMORIAL MAIM'I 




^m mm=m^ ^^^i^j^Llt"' r eH i 



.jfi-'-g*^^^ 



l:^'-- M 




§> 



5 7 



ig 



jEj^^p^^g!^ 






fHP|P 




^/ ^ 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 




- - 






T=^ 



T 5 *- 1 J^" 1 




« 


Tg-,: 


_ 






^ 


1 




<*- 


ff 


— & — 


— «■ 


— 


— 




<3 


(^ 


I 


1-3 



if ^- 



MEMORIAL MARCH. 

-J- 




- - |.71 i 



peo - pie praise 






^feT^S 



r 



S r- .-^ r 



1 



^Lr 



Mr'-- 



fe-Srr iliill 



1 1 liiiaBiisiSS^fe ^S 1 



tesS^I^Jliiii^^fei^ 




MEMORIAL MARCH. 



Chorus 




MEMOR] M M MI« M. 




■ *. *. V\.%fett % WWfc WQMWW.*, i»m 



VOLUNTARY OF PSALM 100. 



Music arranged by J. O. Starkweather. 



Sung by the Avion Club. Jules Jordan, Director. 



JUBILATE DEO. 



m 



A ller/ro. 
Bopuano. 



From Vincenzo Rhighini. 
Adapted by J. O. St akk weather. 



SE3^ 



O be joy 
Ai.to. 



ful in 



n the 



Lord, 



^ 



in the Lord, 



-V- 



m^m 



all ye 



lauds: 



3E 



5^3=3^ 



122= 



O be Joy - ful in the Lord, 
Tenor. 



in the Lord, 



all ye lands: 



W- 



^ 



sE3 



~^B 



O be Joy - ful in the Lord, 

Bass. 



in the Lord, 



all ye lands: 



£ 



O be joy - ful in the Lord, in the Lord, all ye lands 



\ 




r^S 



m 



=t 



=r 



3e£ 



* — * 



-«— *— w 



Serve the Lord with glad - ness, and come be - fore His pres-ence, His pres-ence with a song. 



^ 



«Lt r 



^ 



: *=^E 



' — ■*— ^ — *- 
Serve the Lord with glad - ness, and come be -fore His pres-ence, His pres-ence with a song' 



^ r ^ 



* 



s 



.j^u^ s 



^= 



- * — * — *- 



W 9 * -»^ 



*-* 



Serve the Lord with glad - ness, and come be - fore His pres-ence, His pres-ence with a song. 



^rrE 



' n o- 



1=£ 



-I — I — I — I 



s- 



1 — I— j- 



s 



s^-j 



Serve the Lord with glad - ness, and come be - fore His pres-ence, His pres-ence with a song. 



^ 



ilS^^P 



5^3=3 



w^ 



%*- 



*—§—$ 



Eh 



f f —m— -0-rr? 



J_J- 



££e£ 



£ 



:S=fc= 



=*=t 



4= 



E 



=1= 



It 



f=t 



Wt 



■W 



W-^~- 



m m^&m 



^S 



Serve the Lord with glad - - ness, and come be - fore His 

m-i — i — — 1 — F^^ 1 ^- 



-0 w +■ 



<? * 



T 



^ 




with glad - ness, and come be - fore His 



Serve 



the Lord 



with glad 



-5-^=s=r 



m^Mmmmmi 



ness, and come be - fore His 
-= : - e -*-w 



Jt 



^zzrzz 



a pp.) 



£ 



r Ei 



~g7~ 



Copyright, 1886, by J. 0. Stai:kweatiieb. 



EEEEEpEE 



(1) 



JUBILATE DEO. 



| 



rail. 



^ 



£ig 



•—*■- 



g^g=^ 



pres 



ence, and come be - fore His pres 



ence with 



a song. 



£B^nrrj—jj 



fc^CTj^i 



a song. 



pres 



ence, and come be -fore His pies 



- ence with 



i^^ 



£fe§33 



pres - ence, and come be- fore His pres 

rail. 

m m- — 



- ence with 



a song. 



S 



pres 



ence, and come be - fore His pres - - ence with a song. 



s£T- 



u$m^^^s^%m^m 



rail. 



s 



s 



i-^ 1 ^ ^ 



"S?~ 



s>- 




3==^ 



**=* 



^ 



^^3 



*&M 






•eag-; 



£: 



=S= 



3 



^ 



^ 



3f 



QOAKTET. ttlJO 



E^^^ggj^jg ^^ 



Andante. 



The Lord is God; it is He 



that hath 



3= 



3pc 



i 



0- 



3 



<e — s>- 



^=k 



2Z 



Be ye sure that the Lord, He is God; it is He 



that batb 



i 






: -* — fS> (S- 



«22= 



^S=S 



^ 



0~~~0 



Be ye sure that the Lord, He is God; it is He 



that hath 



-22 <ZL 



=*=?* 



=£=£ 



P— I*- -22: 



= 1- 1 rgg 



3t=«t=S 



=^=tz 



Be ye sure that the Lord, He is God; it is He 



that hath 



Andante. <~"~ik~l t k. i i i 



T=~r 



^pEEE^^^^^^^P 



»»p 



S: 22 22- 



3t=t 



:c 



§J_ J. J. j.^ i i i i i 

0- ip*=ar- 

£=fc=E 



?=sr=jrj 



P* H« — =zpc 



i 



rail. 



JUBILATE DEO. 



=Bpc 



4= 



S 



Sfe 



made us, and not we our- selves; 



We 






are His peo - pie, 



. 



i^ ^feasj 



^fe^ 



made us, and not we our- selves; 



We 



§F==± 



JttHt 



3 



tj 



are His peo - pie, 



=o 



9 «^ 



i 



s 



f^m 



* 



We are His peo 



^ 



i^E^ 



pie, 



wo are His 



rail, 



Hi 



d ' 1 



e 



3 



«3 



lll Sg^^ 



sss 



Spi 



fe E^fcJ^: 



^ 



we . . are His peo - pie, 



£-J-J-«JJ 



We . . are His peo - pie, and the sheep of His 



X 



^Se^SeIS 



1 



— # — — * zj -«>— ^ 



* *i 



3f== 



=£ 



-»! * * * 



1=t 



E 



£ 



4= 







=p 



Pi 



P 



we are His peo -pie, 



We are His peo - pie, and the sheep of His 



: 



J — J— : * — * — m 



m^ 



s 



3t=32: 



peo - pie, His peo - pla, 



-» 3. i j j [g 



^ 



si 



=fc± 







a Tuiti. Allegro. 



T^O m 



eres. 



WfEs^m 



"A » 



SHH 



f?"' ftg 



pas-ture. O go your way 



in -to His gates with thauksgiv - ing, and In - to His 



fefe^Ng^^^ J^bfc^^^^ 



i ■■ 



£=£ 



g^ 1 * W 




S^P£3£^ 



~X=Xi 



&=&-- 



"S-5*- 



fe=? I * fCZZ 



pas- ture. O go your way 



m=F^^£ 



in - to His gates 

-0—rS> 



with thanksgiv - ing, and in - to His 

-0- 1— (S>— 



5^fc 



i ^ u -v 



Allegro- ^Tctti. , | i w w, III 

* ^ 1 1 Ir t Z t ^ 5 5.T. r -r 



cres 



T** 



Allegro. 



f=f=T=E 



-G>~ «- 



321 




£ 



3^E£ 



*=*= 



Him, and speak good of His name; 



f^E£5£E*EE 



— t 



=t 



For the Lord is gra 



id: 



* — J 1 



^^S 



cious.His 



1t=t 



~* — -0- 



3_^ 



^ 



F 



- * *' 



Him, and speak good 



22: 



^=ee^!^^ 



of His name; 



^^i^^p^^^ 



For the Lord is gra - cious.His 



^^^1 



'^^m^^^^^^m 



IBS^ DBB 



L;^ 



r 



•C2. 
ft 



;^^^ 



mer- cy is ev - er - last - tag; 



^=^ii^^ 



— ^— !j»,Jj» ev - er last-ing; 



mer - cy is ev - er - last -tag 



f 




53= 



==11SEEj 



JUBILATE DEO. 




gen - 



a - tion, to gen - er - a - tion. 
rail. f ,_, 



f= 



l^EEE 



-jS *»■- 



> k e 



a - tion to gen - er 



a - tion, to gen - er - a - tion. 



£fc£E 



?= 



a - tion to gen - er 



a - tion, to gen - er - a - tion. 
rail. | I I / /rv 



U: 



P 



i 



IS2Z 



3= 



s 



-•***- 
-#*^ 



s 



s 



P=gii 



£=t 



S*e 



Glo 



fcg: 



g F 



Glo 



gg 



-gg- 



ry, glo 



ry 



rst 



ry, glo 



ry 



--- 



?2= 



-*-*- 



be 



to the Fa 



ther, and 



— > 3 



+- w -+ 



be 



22: 
to the Fa 



ther, and 



I 



Glo 



El 



22= 



ry, glo 



ry 



^ EE F=r 



be 



to the Fa 



g 



ther, and 



ther, and 



-TV -^a 



cres. 



JUBILATE DEO. 



to 






. the Son, and to the Ho 




• the Son, and to the Ho - 



Ghost. 



the Ho - ly Ghost. 



to 



the 



Son, and to the Ho 
I cres. i I 






ly Ghost. 





t^mmm 




^^y^lpiP^miii 



Sp" 



=Hii§§i 



was in the be - gin 




ning, is now, 



and ev - er shall be, 



aing, is now, 



er shall be. 




and ev - er shall be, 



^m 



^^ 



JUBILATE DEO. 



fc=e 



-.> 



£ 



£u*z 



world with-out end, 



W=^ 



j r^ -^ 



- *J6t~ 



rx-^- 



world, world with-out cud, 



See: 



-»—-*— h« 



!==£*= 



ES 



F 



-X-P— *--" 



. 



=S?= 



world with - out end, world 






H*- 



^3§ 



: 1 - 



1 



^ ■ . X 



world with - out end, world 



X 



& 



=t 




§§ 



^2= 



221 



"-t^r^cr 



hst: 



* X- 



±F= 



i 



^5= 



-- 



with - out 



w- 



£=Ft 



I 



SE 



end, 



world with - out end, A 



men, 



=t=t 



rfc 



* — 1- 



s 



fe 



r^z 



- * ^ 



ZZ2Z 



- r - > g= 



1 



cj _ s£ 



:?2: 



with - out 



e^^3 



end, 



world with - out end, 

£= * 1«- 



_^__ 



men. 

— <S— 



^ir 



.^25 






i^& 



^Es 



asE 



^ 



e 



I 



3=2= 



-X— ■ 



I 



^0 



P=^ 



1 



^0 



g= 



~?7 " 



• — X- 



=F 






*33= 



^ 



-=*- 



I 



s^p r 



S* N* 



S 



f= 



-•# — -m- ~-$A — h- 0~^ — t < s> — -- I 



ADDRESS 



Gilbert F. Robbins, Acting Mayor. 



Address by Acting Mayor Gilbert F. Robbins. 



Alderman Thomas B. Ross, chairman of the committee 
of arrangements of the City Council, introduced His Honor 
Gilbert F. Robbins, the Acting Mayor, who delivered an 
address as follows : 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — -We have assembled to .lav to b 
with appropriate ceremonies the celebration of the two hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of Providence. That the open- 
ing exercises should be held within the walls of this venerable edifice, 
from which the principles formulated by the founder of these planta- 
tions have gone forth with world-wide application, is a tribute to him 
who defied the persecutions of his associates and braved the dangers 
which surrounded him in the effort to provide a haven of rest for those 
who suffered for conscience' sake. The city has chosen well in its 
selection of the place within which is to be delivered the historical dis- 
course commemorative of the event it is to celebrate. 

To portray in fitting language the sufferings, the trials and the 
persecutions of the first settlers of the Providence Plantations, who 
builded better than they knew, to follow and recount the many vicissi- 
tudes of our ancestors and to describe the changes from the town to 
the city government is the province of the historian. Neither is it for 
me to attempt to place before you ever so briefly the record of the 
growth and prosperity of this municipality, from the date of its incor- 
poration as a city. 

The duty which has been assigned to me is that which was 
intended for another, and which it was confidently hoped would be 
performed by one whose life has been identified with the greatest 



80 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



growth of the city, and whose position for eighteen years as Chief 
Magistrate qualified him more than any one else to present to those 
who are here assembled the progress and development of all the varied 
interests which have made this the second city in New England. His 
broad and comprehensive views of what was most needed, both for the 
good government of the community and the advancement of its wel- 
fare, which have received the endorsement of the citizens whose inter- 
ests he endeavored to serve, has been a potent factor in placing this 
city in the advanced position which it occupies. No one can regret 
more than I that it was not permitted the late Mayor, Honorable 
Thomas A. Doyle, to participate in the exercises which to-day inau- 
gurate an epoch in the history of this city from which in time to come 
other celebrations will date, and which would have afforded to him as 
well as his hearers so much gratification. 

To those who are now assembled in this grand old church, and 
who have watched with pride the great advancement of the munici- 
pality, the day, though fraught with a memory tinged with sadness, is 
nevertheless bright with the hopes of a success far beyond that which 
has already been attained, and which will be unequalled by the future 
history of other cities. 

The capabilities of its citizens, their regard for good government 
and willing obedience to wholesome laws ; the patronage and foster- 
ing care for its institutions of learning ; its natural resources, with their 
possibilities for greater developments, all combine to guarantee a prom- 
inence beyond the highest anticipation of those who now participate 
in doing honor to the event which the occasion commemorates. 

These principles of good government having their inception in the 
minds of those who framed the first laws of our ancient town, are an 
heirloom of which the citizens may justly be proud ; not alone that 
they have been to them a safeguard in the protection of the public pol- 
ity, but they have been disseminated wherever, throughout this broad 
country, the sons and daughters of Providence have fixed their homes. 
So, too, has been the influence of its institutions of learning, out- 
stretching beyond measurement and moulding the opinion of men and 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. Si 

framing them for positions in life which have reflected the highest 
honor upon their native city. Again, from within its borders have 
been sent forth those products of skilled labor which have reached to 
every clime, and have borne witness to the industry, thrift, ability and 
energy of its people. 

All these and more have contributed to make the city of Provi- 
idence renowned, and in pausing a moment to review the past and 
measure the advance which time in its slow but sure march has meted 
out, every true citizen must rejoice that he is one of a community of 
whose record he has no reason to be ashamed, and that he has lived by 
the principles which the founders of his city enunciated and which 
were fostered and cherished by succeeding generations. 

To those of our citizens who have assembled to honor by their 
presence the anniversary of the settlement of the Providence Planta- 
tions, in the name of the city I extend to you a cordial welcome, and 
to those who have returned to their native city to join in its festivities 
and celebrate its natal day, as well as to those who come as strangers 
within its gates, I give the hearty greeting which first saluted our 
founder — "What Cheer." 



SALUTATORY ODE. 



Words by Rev. F. Denison. Music by Prof. A. A. Stanley, 



Sung by the Avion Club. 



CITY OF FREEDOM. 

SALUTATORY ODE. 



Music by A. A. Stanley. Op. 0. 
Allt gro con spirito. 

Gr. Coup, to Full Sw. ™J i 



Words by Rev. F. Denison. 









rr^zcm^m^- 



^0* . - i 



Ski 



1 ■— — f~«H — H -^ Sc 







Alto. 



Break forth in - to sing - ing, in - to sing-ing: 



— =!Sz 



-* — w 



*3fc 



— g — h — M=^ 



Tenor. 



Break forth in -to sing - ing, in - to sing-ing: 
f^-et tempo. ___ -^ rit. 



^^m 



* — m-Bi*- 



t=£=l= 






Bass. 



Ci - ty of Freedom; Break forth_ 



in - to sing - ing, 




u « tempo. 

Thtt-W— 3 






^sHH 



» » 



5E£ 



-* — »- 



-F= 



f±E=£ 



§m 



Praise, ye glad peo - pie, the Fa - ther Di - vine; 



Out of great treas - ures, with 



-* — m * - 



-m-,—m — *- 



Praise, ye glad peo - pie, the Fa - ther Di 
. n tempo. ^-. _ — «. 



vine; 



I 
Out of great treas-ures, with 



IS 



3- J- J^ ^ 



p^ 



Praise, ye glad peo -pie, the Fa - ther Di- vine; 

\&-" i e — i 1 — i *— * r 



t=*=t 



T 

Out of great treasures, with 

It 



*' * —* - 



-^^m 






i tr 

In 



=t=t 



a tempo. 



'".* 



TffWf^l 



\- 



=t 



2 » 



.p^^tpp^ 



gg 



l i i i 
E?3, J-*- 



J?«^L 



^- TZ^ -^- 



tr. 






^^=i^i 



d * S 

: .*_ 



(14pp I 



I 
Copyright, 1886, by A. A. Staklet. 



(1) 



CITY OF FREEDOM. 



m& 



crescendo. 



d S 






^2= 



&S 



grat - i - tude bring - ing. Lay your new of-f ring on Lib - er - ty's slnine, 



m 



■0-. L S> 



ee£e£e£e3 



3 



&£ 



grat - i - tude bring - ing, Lay your new of - f ' ring on Lib - er - ty's shrine, . 

~_ -_ -=. -» crescendo. 



m 



-=ps=l= 



-* — wh 



zm~0 



t=E 



$=tz 



a=t 



^S 



grat - i - tude bring 



w* 



itf±tHt 



J- 



ing, Lay your new of - f 'ring on Lib - er - ty's s hrin e, w _ 

-0. 0. a ^*L_ &*-_ 



J0- — o.— 'ig- 

g=JF=F=r£= PE 



-t=P 



m& 



e£e±^ 






:» 



. 



3*=S 



^SlP 



-B^ 






crescendo. 



mA 



fe 






F 



fc*. 



//= 



; P_=3^=^ESE 



^=^ 



*=S=W 



riV. 



3 — I — 5 fc- 

T-«-* =3- 



ifc 



Lay your new of-f 'ring on Lib - er-ty's shrine. 



=F= 



"S^ 



Lay your new of-f 'ring on Lib 



iff. 



-0-0^-p- 
er-ty's shrine. 



it U mpo. 

mf 



m 



An - ees - tors' mem 



2 * 



s=?r 



te£ 



- 



t=£: 



1= 



w=2=*- 



Lay your new of - f 'ring on Lib 



er-ty's shrine. 



-;- 



^FE^EEFi 



t 



:d: 



tt^ 







^=±1^2 



3^= 



3= 



// 



gff 






rit. 






Sw. 



=t= 



^=F^ 



EFS 



=*=:* 



4= 



IIe 



£ 



do. 



=± 



I=t 



T 
ing, Hal - low in song their il - lus - tri - ous deeds; 



f : 



r 



a=s 



sa - cred - ly keep 



P= 



^ 



±=t 



35S 



^=J= 



£ 



^S 



Hal -low in song their il - lus - tri - ous deeds; 



'si 



5dbr 



3 






1 — h 



ttts^T 



±=t 



Ch. 



[on 



tt^n 



^Eft=ll 



fc=£ 



-UiL 



^E 



ICY* I 



rfo. 



^ B r 



1 



S3 



^£*=i? 



T^ 



^ 



^s 



i 



--V:> 



— w>- 



=t 



CITY OF FREEDOM. 



en set ndo. 






5-- 






=t 



. --■ gj | | j 



1 ; ? 



Mil- lions the fields from their sow - ing are reap - ing, Chant-ing thank - giv - ings in 



=1= 



1ee£e1 



=± 



1^= 



'~c*~ 



. 



t*^*- 1 -^ 



±s 



=t 



s 



* r^ C t 



:-» 



e 



^ 



EfEE^ 



* •;*• J 



» » 



Mil- lions the fields from their sow -ing are reap 



- : ? 



Si" ! 



::t.--t 



ing, Chant-ing thank - giv - ings in 



Bf 



r=t= 



t=: 



Gr. 



•3>^\- 



=— - *-=— — 



-CtSt- 






^:?iS 



r — 1 1 - --g ^ 






H— tH — r-d*-. — di U— i 



II tv-j. 

Lr ^i -5*- f- *— -} S-fS^ 



P=t 



H 



H 



flf±=*=*c=: 



^ 






=t=± 



con - eord of creeds 



■ :i 



Chant-ing thanks- 




con-eord of creeds, Chant-ing thanks-giv- ings in con-cord 

-g£ — "£ — "£ — &*m—4m — flr- 



creeds 



f/^ 



&&E 



-F=F=F 



EEE3 



3 2 S 



:i — r 



4=2-. 



3=« 



^ 



??!e«0 7)lOSSO. 



5 <=■-• 



I I 






I 

Sw. 



rv3T 



**-# 



ts: 



I 



fcqfi^&r 



g g fr 



=t=t 



fet 



5jtft 



tr 



rit. < dim. 



±=td 



f-^a tempo. 



?=*- 



^JE 



F±t=t 



* v 



n 



giv-iugs in concord of creeds. Ci - ty of Freedom, break forth 



:•, 



s 



::* 



in- to sing-ing, 






*=t 



I 
rtV. e dim. 



-z^-^ 

m "" 



:fz±: 



^5^ 



tr 



:*=*: 



J I I 



-»— ,» > ■» 



i=t 



a tempo. 



it*; 



3n£ 



» * :* 



m concord of creeds. Ci 
PP 



ty of Freedom, break forth in- to sing-ing, 




&**> 



CITY OF FREEDOM. 



1 



£=*=- 



-> Lj 



~*=s 



t= 



»_# J^^y^'^L. peo-ple, the Fa 



^^m= 



the Va . (-ho- fi: .^===" J Tr*^— * * 1 



q: 



ther Di - vine: 



Out of g reat t reassures with 



^^m 



Praise, ye glad peo-ple, the Fa - ther Di -Tine- X STTT^ ==i 



Out of great treas-ures with 




$Jk5= 



S tfS^ 






SS 



&- 



OS 






JJ : *U^J Sri a j 



-p 



^» 



=i==fe2 



— g^3-jj_j ^_L' — ^~tr F; 



^f= 



r 



n'<. 






H5=£= ==— ^-^__^-i_^i^w_ o^rnng^on^ Lib-er-ty's shr 
grat - i-tnrlfi hrin^ ~7Tr — 9- t^ztp 1 t~3~F — F — f = 1- 



l=i : 



grat - i-tude bring 






i 



ing, Lay your new of-f'ring on TibT^FTtP 



. I ' " " «i-x iiug UU JU1I 



3= 



shrine, 



^ 



^fflffl 



"\ /-- 



*= 






a £>oco maestoso. 



Lg-tt La y y°" r new oF- f'ring~ on 






Lay your new of - f rino- ™ T?!?' ^ . . 




Lay your new of - fring on 




lib - er-ty's shrine. 



m^^^^^ 





■#[ • J j « tempo. 

— I 1 i_« — m _ — \ i^™» 



fett^^^A^^jIg 






=feg 



CITY OF FREEDOM. 



335: 

"z 1 » 



c&5 



Moderate. 

Bass Sor.o. 



ff 



•• a i 



Soul 



ra i 






I 






~* 






BSE =^^^J=Bg^ 



&^E 



Si 



;pa 



35^ 



-U^ 



S m ) 



-• 



M 



bv 



rit., 



3=Z 



HI 



Moderate 



^ 



-<s. •- 

'I I 



i * » 



&£ 



S3 



I * I * ■ lg 



£=^e 



HP 



*=6t 



stir - ring Truth is thetruni-pet-tonguedan - gel, Wak-iDg the world with her 



Ch. 



g 



25t 



m a 1 — « ^ - m 

jj jjj I j J 



:p=3 



I 



HP 1 



-* — •- 



Tenor Solo. 



-: 



=± 



g -J^ -g 



^2. 
3= 



Here in the wild was proclaimed that e - van - gel, 



voice from a - bove ; 



:d: 



t*=£m 



-* . *.S .. -S -- 



U 



l=^^ kt 



g; 



-T ~ |> |* — It-j-q. 



nTT fTTt 




T 3 



T- rtt zstz — , • — £: 



*=t=i=t 



*= 



-r— r 



-m m- 



~$r 



'i I 



P 



dr- 



sg — a»- 



Chobus |p! I *> 



^=ffi*^*^ 



4=^ 



Here rose a tern- pie to broth -er - ly love, Here rose a tern - pie to 
Espressione. Chorus. 

r i-f — i^c 



3b fr E= 



1 — r 



r 




J= 



3=fc 



i 



3=$* 



r- 



^ 



as i^ ftj ~g - 



sr 



sJ. 



-fir 






IT 



f= 



i 



:^ 






3*= 



^ 



CITY OF FREEDOM. 




( an - cient a nd cath-o -lie psal 

— ~2 -3 -4 



ter: A nthem of Beth - le-hem heard in the We^T 



— pq:=t^__| 1 , ^ „+ ^cm - .e-iiem u eard in the West. 

cath-o -lie nsal - *«•■ a„ *>, « „.., TV - * - . w -^- 



an - cient and cath - o - lie psa l 



! 



tt: 



ter; An - them of Beth - le-hem heard in the Wett 
puc tranquillo. pp M - t 



=t: 



cient^nd^cath^ - 5T " ^^^1==!^^^^^^^^^ 




MEEg^El^EEtEfcbfefell 



CITT OF FREEDOM. 

a tempo e risoluto. 



(=>•>■> + ■ 



3=z 






*=J3 



* 



4=P 



An-them of Beth - le - hem Iieard in the West. Ju 

Gr. 



bi - lant sing we our 




i^^iiiigpl 



e£=£ 



-* — m- 



=F=t= 



^ 



cit - y of beau - ty, Fav - ored of God and ex - alt - ed in name, 



i 



* 



3=i=s 



± 



sS 



. 



$ 



§E3f 






rs£ 






^f^fM* 






T^NJJijl^ 



Tenoks. 



dim. 



o 31 «!— «Ht£ 



* 



15= 



£ g— a 



f 



Fore-most and fear - less in pa - tri - ot du - ty, Wear - ing her scars and es - 



re n> * * I J. £j-f,UJ =^ d^ itJ-4-J-J J r ^ hd=q 



^fg^^g 



i — i — r 



J 



J 4- 



--*=£ 



4* 



^'JS 



e^: 



^^= 



^ 






=£ 



dim. 



, 



4-4-4- 



L^^^^& £ m^ 



^*zi 



Sso^ 



*±^fc 



&< 



^ 



1 I I 



$+ — % 



^^ 



j0yO rt'C, 



1 1 1- 






tS 



i I 

cutch-eons of fame; 



^=E^ 



Wear-ing her scars and es - cutch-eons of fame; 



Bfcizbi 



f r r if 

te \m tm hr 



* * 



*EES£ 



a*= 



^ 



ffi r I * It 



i#— V=33. 



".-2 



*- 



J 



:Se: 



d=T3d 



5=£ 



-« L ^s>- 



1 rr 



^. 






= to^ 7 te gs: . b=-. <■&-. - r>. — 



-T 



m 



CITY OF FREEDOM. 

mf 



f-gf- 



- u » 1^ ? 



*: 



* 



:*^cr 



V s - 



a*»: 



-^7«» 



nagfay 






Splen-did at birth, as the star of the 



g t empo. 



H=r- 



■wrs-j*" 



riY. 



dim. 



Sw. 
Gr. 



4# -l 1 * 






mf 



*=f^ 



-f=3 



$ 



cres 



do. 



fs 



P 



Strug • gling a - lone with the tern - pest and gloom. 



Now, with a 



6 




w 






Strug -gling a - lone with the tem - pest and gluom. 



Now, with a 




~t~r r~ij r - r Lj~r \~~t 



tp= 



-* — *~ 



ss= 



=F= 



=F 



i I U =t 



~ 



host, our re - pub - lie a - dorn 



ing, Joy - ing in lib - er - ty's far-spread-ing home. 



m± 






i i =t 



* — * * -5; 



i 



our re - pub - lie a - dorn - ing, Joy -ing in lib - er-ty's far-spread-ing home. 

/• s 



~*=^ 



=» — *- 



3= 



=s=s=qi«: 



_* *_ 



t=t 



host, our re - pub - lie a - dorn - ing, Joy -ing in lib - er-ty's far-spread-ing home. 

J 2 * * *— r-0- » • . ^ ^ , *i » , fr» ■ * r*- 



4= 



EE3 



5= 



-*- -a- -#- ■<=-' 



£e£ 



•r 



^ 



host, our re - pub - lie a - dorn 



ing, Joy- ing in lib - er-ty's far-spread-ing home. 




ita. 



ur-r iff-^r f*f 



3= 



=EEE 



£ 



* * 



^* * 



Ie 



#• r*- 



CITY OF FKEElxiM. 



I I 



-ft- y * *~ 



Jt -A~J- 



^- j-h^ ZJg=g»r 



J^SE 



^ 



^ - 






dim. 



"Tr-p-**-*^ 



I 



ge 



g- ^n fe. 






_T I 



3 



-Solo. 



P^ 



8 -- , 



E^ 



* » * 



^^T 



; ,:p 



Free to our por-tals we wel-come as ev - er 



!/■ N 






?^^:*i§^; 



=«tS*=S«: 



IE 



a • J - ' " — — w -*~*— — '■ mi ^ - 






-» — S»&- 



£E 



=S«qSg^ 



ss.- 



m 






J .*. . . ^ -«' "^ 



1^ 



1 



^)0C0 agitdto c crescendo. 



*=J- 



-* • ■ *" 



:c» isgfc: 



- * * — <■ — k 



Ex - iles for conscience a - kin to our sires 



Bound in a fel - lowship 




Sfc3L 



r r sj 

» — # — * — 



1 1 i 



^S^ 



^ 









t=E 



f=-* — »- 



fi=t 



-3* P P- 



i: 



naught may dis - sev - er, Keep - ing a - glow the o - rig - i - nal fires. 



3--S 



%P=Z- 



3= 



§= 



1=f= 



Free to our 
I PP i 



-*-», 



3fc£ 



=F 






UUi 



*- w J* 



*^™ 



^. 



5 A 



-U U 



r 



*5* 



B j^-' 



g^-' 






CITT OF FREEDOM. 



i-l^*=j=i=3^=]*^z ., W l *& 



arat 



-c 



F 



— 



?=t 



Free to our por - tals we wel - come as ev - er, Ex - iles for con 



i 



=J— d — l_i _l M Lt, I 1 1 uJ 



J_J J 



* *■ 



g 



59s 



*= 



t 



I I 

Free to our por - tals we wel - come as ev - er, Ex - iles for 
f)jd poco crescendo. 



"PS ■ 




a* 



*£ 



^ 



2^- 




* 9 9- <s> — — * » » — » m- 



? 



por - tals we wel-come as ev 



§fe 



t g f— j f 



3tf= 



er, Ex - iles for conscience a - kin to our 

i . I I ! 



i 



^=j-. 



^ 



g=^=F 



t=t 



«=t 



B33 



H— 1-1- 



-I— I— J— I — u 



J I ! I I 



. 



■Pi- ! 



^L- i J 






at* 



Si 



o . D-»- ^ -d- - 



» ^ « 



#s- 



poco a poco 



SESE3 



iu*LL 



I I 



k 



crescendo. 



^ 



S3 



^0 .f- jggL. 



=-^&T 



^rflg= 



a 



aA 



ad ?»'&. 



^ 



P 



science, a - kin to our sires. 

# I smorzando. 



5fe± 



pp 



-» — *- 



Ex -iles for conscience a - kin to our sires. 



conscience. 

Solo. 
; a - kin to our sires. 



% 



n=> t 



:» m 



n r 



&3 






rr r 

Ex - iles for conscience a - kin to our sires. 
Solo. 

a - kin to our sires, smorzando. 

— PP 



- 



^ 



7 *^0 



SS^Eg 



I x 



-m — »- 



3fc 



if 



i — i — r 



sires, 

Solo, a 



m^ 



Ex - iles for conscience a - kin to our sires. 

- kin to our sires. „„ 

II _ PP 



^*S 



I I P 



£ 



3^ 



5^ 



X X 



^vo- 



PS 



-■&- 



-x— *- 



^ 



rtf 



W 



—I -| f ~ 



CITY OK lUKEIHiM. 



A tempo primo. 



rit. s— ■> 



&£ 



m^ 



2**m 



BE 



" 



pg^f-^r ^m.-J-*****± JJJ** _#***•» * 



I 



■> «* 



tt Allegro ma non troppo c risoluto. 



Ml 




M 



Ml 



Allegro ma non troppo e risoluto 



Freedom ! Soul 



V 



*i±} 



&r+*-fi-^W 



-*-^0- 



* » 



Free-dom ! Soul - Free-dom ! Thou kin - dlest de - vo 



tion, Thou kin - dlest de ■ 



iP%i 



ipfc 



j, N Allegro ma non troppo c riso 



/«<0. 



-4 



=^=*=^: 



.s 



4:F 
3*5 



fc^ztl * :rl «-^- 



tft^ r-P- 



E=E 



' 

-s> — 



JT- 



^mm 



sA 



/ 



-- 



^3^d^=f 



I 



Free-dom ! Soul - Freedom ! Thou 



gg 



* • *- 



-•—+- 



-+—*- 



■ _± * 



3=d=h 



* — •■ 



i=^l 



Free-dom! Thou kindlestdevo 



tion, Soul - Free - dom! Soul-Free- dom ! Thou 



'j LJm . 



jgg jt I I | - ^a — Tri _T^-i [ 

m w *'M }** * m — ^ ■■ w m — 



?*— >- 



^ * - * y 



3=t 



rfc=j= 



■*— -y- 



tion. Thou kin - dlest de - vo - tion, Soul - Free -dom! Thou 



w-t 



■&-- 



m 



«±rf 



* — « — « 




** m 



:t=t 



— * — *i j n 



-rrr^sr-i 



-: 



i=^ 



=^i= 



a hF -a t ^ : 



, rr-r 



CITY' OF FREEDOM. 




!tt <fcj£~sr =fc 



*> >• 



H* ^ 



** 



«t 



t^3: 



^=?* 



&J 



kindlest devo 



tion Soul - Freedom, Her 



?m 



aid of mer -cy, Her 



sfa= 



*35 



;2* 



4P: 



'latdtff 



=t- 



kin 



dlest de -vo-tion,Soul- Freedom, Soul - Free - dom, 



*±3.=fcr-3 



=*=*=p^&>= 



3=t 



s 



Freedom 



=t 



£ 



=P=P 



-*-«-- 



kin - dlest de - vo 



m& 



m 



tion.Soul - Free-dom, Her 



aid of mer 



mer - cy, „ 

. * P » — i 

SiE5=^=EE=Ez3 



P 



3 



Freedom ! S oul-Fr eedo m! Thou kin-dlestdp-vo 
^ _ 



lY^Em. 




.J. J i i i>^n — ' i i^rfl j C 






?A 



-a* •- 



aid of mer-cy.Great Break - er of chains, 



x 



i — X 



Free - dom 



! Soul - Free 



1 



dom. 



=»*=*: 



PS 






Soul - Free - dom, Break - er of chains, 



Soul - Free - dom, 



Freedom, Soul 



V* 



3= 



H»— X- 



t 



> 



Free 



dom. 



Free-dom, Soul - Free 



^ ' 



P—7T 



!Z2l 



^E£ 



S3 



dom, Free-dom, 



» * 



fc= 



=3* 



1 



*=F 



Sz j I l ~t 



t 



tion ! Great Break - er of chains ! Free - dom, Soul-Free-dom, Soul - Free-dom, 




Free 



dom, Free 



dom, 



Free - dom, Free - dom. 



Free • 



-*—*—*- 



e J * ^T~*- 



Free 



dom. 



*--g 



// 



B^ 



J^ 



>- f O g- 



?= 



32* 



ig^i? 



- 



X X «- 



Soul - Free - dom, Free 



dom, 



Free - dom, Free - dom ! 



Free ■ 



3* 



=ig= 



1 



*I= 



-»— « 



i= 



Soul 



Free - dom. 






fefe 



r 



S 



i=p= 



r 



±± 



^r 



^c 



=2S — a* 



i 



0EE 



m 



ff M'i' stoso. Tempo di chorale. 



CITY OK FREEDOM. 



3=3=3=^ 



[ 



-i- 



m - 



=t= 



= ' 



Free - dorn! soul free - dom! Thou kin - dlest de 



-<sz 



tion: 



» 



r< 



s 



// 



f 



i 



, 



, 



ss 



=t== 



P 



trv^? 



Free - dom! soul free - dom! Thou kin - dlest de 



'"-4 



' 



vo 



tion: 



Maestoso. Tempo di chorale. 



-*™ 



.53 



=fc 



* » - 2 



Full Organ. 



LJT 






. 



S 






r 




^e^ =U ^= 



* 



i 



55= 



t> 's 



3=^ 



£ 



=psz 



X 



hh 



Her - aid 



of 



cy, great break - er 



of 



chains, 



=t 



'* 



Z&^ 



=r= 



X 



Her - aid of 



great break - er 



of 



chains, 



; 3 



1= 



£&= 



=t 



=t 



^ 






iSgEEt^ 






sIa* 



* - -*- 



JU- 



r" eJ 



:« 






4^ 



.V* 



like the winds o'er the 



Breathe o'er the 



earth, 



Hfc* 8 



« fr ! S 



• * 



:S»= 



-*-•»- 



Breathe o'er the 

IX Z . 



earth. 



like the winds 



:t: 



» * 



o'er the o 



F- 



Breathe o'er the earth, 



like the winds o'er the 




te 



Breath o'er the earth, 
I _j _, 



. like the winds o'er the 



tr 



S&. 



W i^B V r 



^E*E£* 



;* 



r^: 



^2: 



%: 



gp3g^|^ 



r 



* — ^~ 



■r 



*K**f>*==£f: 



j^^g %^^g^ 



I 



is*, 



CITY OF FREEDOM. 



m 



D^=E 



ftc 



Na 



tions up 



raised shall 



ech 



thy 



strains, 



*& 



It 



5 



i 



3E 



&•'" 







S a -*- 



m 



p 



£ 



F> 



t 



Na 



tions up 



raised shall 



re - ech 



m 



m^E^ 



v \ s- 



^ 



thy strains. 



Na - - tions up 



raised . . . shall re - ech 



thy 



strains, 



i 



ife^EEd 



m* 




SS5 



W 0$^g±. 



V 



.-- 



^ 



^ 






@j2 



=3* 






^^ 



v + 



**&. 



r 



1 






«s-i— »- 



=t= 






Marcato. 



Na - tions up 



raised 



:tz=£: 



* 



shall re - ech - o thy strains, 



wm 



5 



^ 



Na - tions up 



S& 



Marcato. 



-0- m- 



X 



t 



as 



Na - tions up - raised 

<t— B# *■- 



shall re - ech - o 



thy strains, 

-4K- 



Na - tions up - 



=* 



*> 



£ 



J- 



«|g 



i 



P 



*U-f 



att 



.*_■*" 



imsi 



r~r 



a^&= 



3 



if*- 



— »- 



T 



^ 



f= 



±=1e^. 



^ 



i 

Marcato. 



s=e 



±=^[ 



i^-^ 



3*: 



#c 



£ 



I I 



=F 



a=8 



S^ 



-fi-J^ i 



+ 



?23 



* * 



1 



raised shall re -ech 



thy strains. 




-d- 



'& 



mp± 



rr 



i 



h^ 2 — * 



5»; 



»5^ 



Jl^5 






23= 



IP 



II 
1 






PRAYER. 



Rev. Ezekiel G. Robinson, D. D., LL. D., 

President of Brown University. 



Prayer by Rev. E. G. Robinson, D. D., LL. D. 



Almighty God, King of all the earth, Who reignest overall nations 
who sittest on the throne of Thy holiness, before Thee would we bow 
in humble reverence and true worship. Unto Thee would we bring 
our offering of thanksgiving and praise. With gladness would we 
utter the memory of Thy great goodness to the sons of men. Thou 
wast the God of our fathers, leading them up out of the Egypt of 
spiritual and political bondage, and through them laying the founda- 
tions of a great nation. Thanks be unto Thy holy name for the pre- 
cious heritage of just ideas, of true principles and of free government 
which we have received from them. When clouds and darkness were 
round about them and perils were before them, Thou was light 
within them ; a pillar of fire in their gloom. Thou didst guide them in 
paths of righteousness and truth. Blessed be the name of the Lord, 
our God, for all that He has wrought through them for the nations of 
the earth and for the generations that are yet to come. 

We give Thee most hearty thanks, our Father and our God, that 
in Thine infinite wisdom Thou didst raise up and bring to these shores 
Thy servant, the founder of this city ; that Thou didst enable him to 
discern so clearly between what is due to the authority of the civil 
power and what to the sacred rights of conscience ; that Thou didst 
plant within him an undying love for truth, a persistent purpose to 
search for it and to shrink from no sacrifice that he might possess and 
defend it ; that Thou didst nerve him to bear with fortitude and 
patience his adversities, to render good for evil to his persecutors ; that 
Thou didst inspire him with sentiments of justice and of mercy and of 
Christian charity in all his dealings with the heathen into whose terri- 
tory Thy good providence had brought him, and with a spirit of upright- 



102 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY. 

ness in all his intercourse with his fellow citizens. Unto Thee, O God, 
do we give thanks that he was always and everywhere, according to the 
light vouchsafed him, Thy humble servant, a conscientious and per- 
sistent disciple of Jesus Christ, our Lord ; and that Thou madest him 
the teacher of principles that have emancipated nations. Unto Thee, 
Thou whose faithfulness is throughout all generations, do we give 
thanks for the goodly city that has arisen around the resting place of 
Thy faithful servant. Thou hast shielded it from the sword without 
and the noisome pestilence within. Thou hast prospered its citizens ; 
Thou hast increased their wealth and hast given them knowledge ; we 
pray that they may never be left to forget the Author of their mercies, 
and of their manifold and ever-multiplying blessings. 

Preserve Thou to us in their integrity our free institutions. Dwell 
Thou in the hearts of the people, filling them with a just and holy 
indignation against all who would debase or corrupt them. Save Thou 
us from the domination of the impure. Grant unto us legislators and 
magistrates who shall be just and upright ; who shall always speak the 
truth ; who shall despise the gains of oppression, and who shall shake 
their hands from holding of bribes ; who shall not be greedy of gain 
or of human applause ; who shall hate evil and love righteousness ; who 
shall be free from the fear of man, and shall always revere Thy holy 
name. 

Hear Thou, we beseech Thee, our prayer for Thy blessing on the 
Chief Magistrate of the nation ; on all officers of our state and city ; 
on all the people of our common country. 

Accept now, O Thou Judge of all the earth, our thanksgiving and 
our petition. Help us to lay to heart the lessons so recently read to us 
from the biers of the dead ; forgive Thou our transgressions ; guide 
Thou each of us in the path Thou hast marked out for us ; and in 
Thine own way and time bring us into the eternal rest through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. Amen. 



DEVOTIONAL ODE. 



Words by George S. Burleigh. 

Music by Edward K. Glezen. 



Sung by the Avion Club. 



O LIFE AND LIGHT. 



DEVOTIONAL ODE. 

WRITTEN FOR THE 250TH Ax.MVERs ARY l>E THE FOUNDING OF IMF. ClTY OF PKOVrDENCE. 

Words by George S. Burleigh. Music by E. K. Gli 

Adagio. 






» 1st Tenor, i 



»?£ 



"Z 



' 



H ^i 



i 




2nd Tenor. 

O Life and Light, who deigned to bless Our fa -there in the wil 
1st Bass. \ | 



der- ness.Mi re 






^^ 



:t=. 



=£ 



2nd Bass. 



^±E^ 



i l ' ^ ! I J _! 1,1 



ait 



^ 



P 



I 



Pe^ 



+= 



q= 






&E 



*± 



s ^ 

m m 



life more light we ask of Thee, To keep our free homes ev - er free. 
cres. ...... dim. . . . . _ 



B? 



fczfc 



=fc 



-i r 



:(k=5Jc 



:(=: 



-4 r- 



I 



»s 



m 






EsE* 



sr : 



t 



_t -»•_ 



r 



1- 



:|= 



f= 



:te=3fc 



^=4= 



Andante. 
1st Sopkaxo. 



-b-E- 



^i? 



-~ 



t=3t 



r 



T=?=E 



T 



=3fc 



=E= 



f^CS=? 



M — -£-F 



2nd Soprano. 

We stretch our two hands prayer and praise A - bove the past and fu - ture days, While 
..1st Contralto. 



1 1 



=5 



JS=± 



^E 



=L 



=F 



2nd Contralto. 






t=* 




-m -m m 1 

-* p- — «* T 



£?- 



^=*= 



E£e^ 



=± 



r r ri 



~rr r 






* 



fr 



(8 pp.) 



iii. 1886, by E K. <;lezex. 



(0 



O LIFE AND LIGHT. 




cr!s. ^ pres - ent our full hearts Pour thanks for what Thy love 



iin- parts, While 



'? 



^^-^^^^^=4 



3 



w = £-^w ± =*=*=&=^& 



W^=m^ 






flH^E! 



h 



rit. e dim. 



5*: 



£ 



t? 



o'er the pres-ent our full hearts Pour thanks for what Thy love hn -parte? 



-=*s? — * 



m 



w^^ 







Adagio. 

, /"lst Soprano. 





2nd Soprano. ' ^^ 
£ Co L NT f R e :"o. Light ' Wh ° deigDed t0 WeSS ° Ur fa - thers ta ^ wil - to -nes 



^— f -r- 



s, more 



O LIFE AND LIGHT. 



ft 



r 

lite, more light we ask of Thee, To keep our 



free homes ev - er free. • 



fc=rf= 



ii^ 



E^i^S 



■fi — r 



^P^F 



i^-^ 



t=*-=.& % 



^ 



cres. 



// 




-4— J- 



^ 



^^ 



* £ 



* # 



5E^E^E 



^P » !^r 



c^ 



T 



life, more light we ask of Thee, To keep our free homes ev - er free. 




:*=*= 



: ? — W - 



■*■ F- 






-* *- 



:*=tt*: 



-•— f 



=f= 



^ 



s 



F^ 



i^l^Efefefefc 




itlpflNiP^FP 





|E^^fl 



mf Allegro moderato. 



// 




^b 



r 



P 



Thy love, Lov-er of the brave, We know how strong 
Tenors & Basses. 



it is to save, And how its 

-J- -»■ -m- ■*■ 










O LIFE AND LIGHT. 




// 



=: 



w 



¥ 



H» — *- 



liv - ing wells o'er flowed, 



^2=i 



And how its liv - ing wells o'er 

ft r i, -0- -0- -jt- -»• 

' *- -F -F F F 



^ 



TgT-y 



f 5 



J*— fr- 



*5=* 



i — r 



#1 i^f i aT T T : i g 



TTT^- 



F 






rft. 



*=3* 



S 



? 



¥E 



r 

flowed, To cheer our founders' stormy road. 
rit. .... 



£ 



He came to plant with rev'rent 
Andante sostenuto. 
„. Tenor Solo. 



ii 



3sEE 



g=*z:s 



E 



t==ZE 



T 



-* — 1- 



rt7. 






» U S I T 



i 



P 



S: 



*ZZfc 



3EESE 



5P=S*: 



:«L±cfc 



i— i i r 



^F. 



rit. 



wmm 



^jUJ 



i 



2=: 



3: 




» * 



fc£ 



ife 



rrt. 



gqi _g? ■ * 



4=t 



§2=1 



* * 



toil The tree of freedom in our soil, And while his faith and love sur - rive, Its broad'ning 



±=F 



-J 1 



sfefe 



4 U 



=£=* 



C32Z 



S 



* 



i^E^e 



j rg^rtir^ S 



•ms: j 



2Z3T3t 



3C3C 



r#. 



J&t- 



b*- 



i 



^ 



»»-g- , g 



if 



f= 



? 



a tempo. 



rit. 



^^ 



g ? ' » 



^ 



^?. * 



E 



boughs shall o'er us thrive, And while his faith and love sur-vive, . . . Its broad'ning boughs shall o'er us 

J&?1 m. . 




m 



^s>- 



•j: 



^ 



3* 



-<P—*5r- 



t*$ 7 \W . 



a tempo. 



TV?- 
I rit. 



_g2_ 



31 



-h 



O LIFE AND LIGnT. 



i 



pp 



w 






22^ 



m 



zz 



^-m- 



z 



thrive. He came to plant with rev -'rent toil The tree of free - dom in our soil. 

PPP i 



J 



a= 



£S 



Thou Life, whose springs have nurs'd that tree, Thou 



m 



SJ-' ■&• 



-1?^«- 



£e 



ip^lSptiiPi 




d=t 



cres. , . |. | . I . , . . , ^PP \ poco lento. 



-* — ftl 



Life, whose springs have nurs'd that tree, Still keep our free homes ev - er free. Still keep our 



HiEgnfeU 



5= 



- | — r- 



sje 



fe= 



"T 



^^ 



B -J r J- 

-V » » O *»- 



dim. 



-PPP 



* 



2=fe 



T 



~Z2^ 



free homes ev - er free, Still keep our free homes ev - er free. 

-m. _♦. _^ dim. 



HI 



^ 



*&■ . f 2 -- ^ 



:n 



£ 



^ 



-<s- 



^z^q 



-^ 



i 



^^3 



^ 



i 



Tenor. Recitative 

— ^ 



■m * m *■ 



rit. 



?=>■ 0- 



£=&&: 



^tttX- 



& I r? . * t?s c -* 



* 



t=t 



O not in the steel clad arm of a tyrannous pow'r is our trust; The Rock that can 



± 



I 






m^ 



ZC2. 



H 



m- 



r&z 



rit. 



~Z7~ 



O LIFE AND LIGHT. 



gj^ 



fts>- 



dim. 



*# 



& 



Larghetto. 
pp Tenor Solo. 



] 



IE 



f=5^-=*bJ=g 



i^f 



32= 



=£= 



a: 



x^=~m 



--*—• ■ 



p«- 



nev - er be moved is the Law of the true and the just. 

H r\fn ^-^s t+hJ 1- 



God o - ver us, light and love, 



-B.S- 



m~- 



\>wz 






felfc 



^ 



s; 



£S 



bft? 



dim. 



m 



?^-- 



w 






=te= 



J-^iiJ- 



pp 



2221 



EEEEefc 



^gqJfeJ T J_j- 



-«^ 



P 



~?^ 



P 



fe=e=l= 



S3E 



r? | » ^-p^r : 



i^E 



Ff i Ft 



=f=s 



t=l=£^ 



:t 



God under us.strength and will, God in and a -round us, truth and lib-er-ty, deep and still. 



ggggjg 



5t 



:C*: 



J-J. 



.J 



Gt=2- 



i=2t 






?5 



XjZt 



m 



*L'J-Jj = A^Atek- 



^= 



^=3t 



J4^ 



fT 



rrr 



1223 



Tenor Solo. 



k :r~ f ^ 



3 



eIe 



~o P—\-& 



^ 



a^ 



=r=t==t 



te^ 



O Life and Light, O 

Chorus. 



Light and .... Love, 



3e3e^ 



°&—+ — -0- 



Still keep our 

-J— 



*fc± 



tfc 



e 



±=± 



^ 



:g^fc-S— 



^ 



=3- • 



ESI 



r r i r 

God un - der us.strengthand will. 



PP' 



God o - ver us, light and 



-e>^— m — m- 



love, . . 



God in and a ■ 



': 



-*~m- 



^mm 



$& 



p 



3=t 



i — r 



E6 



:*— k k 



PT 



:^z: 



^ -k— k=fr: 



f= 



^ 



I I 



I I I 



m 



m 



: S^ 



-a?-c^ 



^ 



I . ! 



ife 



-<5H>g 



^ 



-J^J- 



gfeg^F 



i- — i — I — F- 



m 



*-»&#- 



&^^ 



s 



homes for . 



ev - er free, O keep, O keep, . 
dim. 



. O keep our homes for ev - er 
rit 



tas= 



, 



<=^— B<»— ■&--*■ 



&U=*fcbf 



free. 



't >r>* '<su 



32; M — r \ 



■& ■»- 



8=&c& 



13= 



^23 



1 — rr 

round us, truth and lib-er-ty, deep and still, truth andliber-ty, deep and 



•ftC2-» 



: =fcS=^ 



tet>= 



:2: ±:-frrT- 



^H-E^E^lliE 



4JJ. 



' 



t=t=i 



£ 



s «e5^ 






S 



^aE ljg 



still. 



@: 



s 



IB 



s 



^ 



"tj2P~ 



zfcS=^= 



:RS2 



-JS^z 



m 






zssz 



F= 



£s 



f>>; 



ff Andante. 



O LIFE AND LIGHT. 









Here - in shall we live and move . . . and our be - ing 




^± 



-S> . C? — *> 



■w^ 



7[~ |— f 



S 



In in 






ly hold, . . . Thai the 



T=^-~^ -* 



"*c 



p^ a 



gkg s 



jbt 



P=*t 



fc± 



■^ 



^=F= 



= t — i — i — = 



: ^ z:: g :] 



g^g s 



-f= 



Z3 * 



Here - in shall we live and move . . . and our be - ing 

ffA ^ 



uT 



^^r^TT^i^ig; 



-P 



^^S^ 



4= 









iSfefe 



feb= 






rt=i 



i 



firm - ly hold 



I 
. . That the 



-^r-r 



* * HlL^* s 



5:- 



^^ 



-fr-p- 



-^"-4 



£2 



ISJI 



ZS ZiT^ 



HE 






S^fe^Eg:^-; 



f^E 



P 



f?' 



:§£=; 



-S: 



,!? 



E H=S 



PP 



:J=^q 









— F — F^-i 1 J -i 1 1 



. land of our love mav be strong, 



When the floods are 



r — i— 

ver it 



±=S&=S±=* 



±==t 



i 



I 



=r3=tg^=g: 



:-g^=^ 



:<=£r=S2b 



> n -? 



E3i 



s s 



d=t 



r 



r^. 



^S 



= r — r~r 



^ 



-i — r — r - 

land of our love may be strong, .... When the floods are 



*S 



s 



mu 



»E 



fc 



r 



5? 



^E 



=£ 



-r^ 



ver it 

-J-J 



X 



*k 



fiESEE^E 



1 1 



:§=^ 



7^ 



_^> 



11 



E± 



-Si- 



I 



St 



-TT-; 



^ 



r= 



i 



fe 



^e-^eIeJ 



-T&S- 



fet 



£E 



J 



=?gi 



— ig j i-g* *-****- 

- \ rS.-* &•-* * *-* * * p- 

i m 1 1 1 ' 



■s 



P2!^ 



n§ 



rolled, 



Here 



in shall we live 
cres. 



and 



move that our land 



may be 



Bt 



ifs^ 



-J7ZT. 



-&1 



-s> — m- — I 



I I 



2 



w 



=5fc*IS?s 



T= 



^ 



;=EzJzEJ 



^^ : 






E= 



rolled, 



St 



^ 



Here ' - in shall we live 
cres. 



and 



move that our land 



^ 



--UJ. 



sJ * 



=P » 



3e=^ 



P 



r £ 



^=k: 



1 — r 



may be 
-a- * 







iiU-», 






^g - * * * * * i» 



****** 




^fff^ 



c? - es. 



* ««* * s s . i t^J Hf itT -t f f 



S 



KjSt s s ss 

► -H*~ * * * * 

eEtMeee 



Ir^^ 



:tfcl 



£S ' 



«: 






rit. molto. 



O LIFE AND LIGHT. 




strong when the floods are 
l , , rit. molto. , 
=fc=dz=d h-^j. 1 



ver it rolled. 
// 




strong when the floods are 
rit. molto. 



■ £- J2 —£ 



^ 



» 



■m^ 



=£2= 



ver it rolled. 

- // 

■C2- 



-P 






's^z 



=?==N= 




^§§HF 



rit. molto. I I I I I | f 





Tenor Solo._ rit. 



V=^- 



X 



tS-O- 



?=<=: 



t=t 






o. 



^=1 



keep our free homes e - ver free 
rit. 

H=4- 



1 



o 



-© — L 



»|=* 






-<s- 



1 



fail ofThylaw.WearThum-ble in hSrt be - fore Thee We are hum-b.e in heart be-fore Th 



■f2—m~m 



:=2=£. 



I^Sl 



X-A 



rrrw? 






-&- 






ro£. 



~^ 



C2-, 



^BE^li^pp 



S^ 






■f 






r 



3 



& 



IB 



-s— IS- 



^== 



^ 



|S2_ 



f=^ 






HISTORICAL DISCOURSE, 



Honorable Thomas Durfee, 

Chief yustice of the Supreme Court of Rhode Island. 



IS 



ORATION 



The traveller who, after a long day's journey reaches the summit 
of some high hill which overlooks the way behind him, delights to 
pause with backward gaze and review the scenes through which he has 
passed. As he retraces his wavering course over hill and dale, by 
forest and river bank, or along the mountain's bulging breast, the great 
objects, the prominent features, stand out at once in luminous distinc- 
tion ; then gradually the lesser points of interest, with hints and sug- 
gestions from which his memory fills out the picture ; until at last his 
whole journey, tedious some times in the making, lies before him, 
flooded with the golden evening light, a pure and perfect pleasure in 
the retrospect. To-day the city pauses on such a high specular sum- 
mit, and, looking backward through the vista of two hundred and fifty 
years, sees the long series of her historic experiences rising in vision- 
ary pageant before her. She, too, makes out at once the great events, 
the magnificent passages, of her history ; then matters of lesser 
moment bringing in their train a crowd of recollections. She remem- 
bers, as she gazes, her thousand bitter toils and trials ; her thousand 
bitter dangers and disasters and troublous vicissitudes ; but with bitter- 
ness and trouble no longer ; for now she rejoices to remember how 
bravely she met them all and how heroically she endured or overcame 
them. She remembers, too, her great industrial successes, her great 
military and naval exploits, and more than all, she remembers, with a 
memory cleaving to the innermost fibres of her being, her victorious 
sufferings in the sacred cause of spiritual freedom, and a divine joy, 
triumphant and tender as the roseate flushings of the dawn, over- 
spreads her majestic countenance. Superb and beautiful Mother! she 



116 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



beckons us, her children, to come up and share her grand delight. She 
charges me to speak for her, and interpret her birthday vision of her 
past, explaining as best I can, the forces and the influences which have 
made her what she is, which have contributed to make us what we are. 

Fellow Citizens:— I am sensible how impossible it is for me to 
do justice to the occasion. The story of two hundred and fifty years 
cannot be told in an hour. Much must be designedly omitted. If I 
err by treating some points with too much, and some points with too 
little fullness of detail and reflection, I can only crave your indulgence, 
and ask you, each for himself, to supply my deficiencies. 

Providence was planted by Roger Williams, together with his com- 
panions and followers, mostly from Massachusetts. The causes of the 
plantation were certain opinions which he held, and which, in accord- 
ance with his character, he proclaimed. Some controversy has existed 
from the first in regard to both the opinions and the character, and lat- 
terly it has been renewed in Massachusetts in an intensely partisan 
spirit. I deem it proper, therefore, to restate the opinions and to por- 
tray the character anew. For more than forty years the history of 
Rhode Island, and of Providence in particular, was largely shaped and 
influenced by Roger Williams, and I shall consider it a great gain if I 
can, by retelling a trite tale, succeed in imparting a fuller, truer and 
livelier conception of his character. 

Born in Wales' and educated at Cambridge University, he became 
a clergymen of the Church of England, but soon revolting from it on 
account of what he considered its Romish perversions, he broke 
with it utterly, and fleeing before the persecution of Laud, crossed 
the ocean to begin a new life in the New World. His flight cost him 
bitter pangs— "bitter as death to me," he wrote twenty°years later ; 
but he was obliged either to fly or to dissemble his convictions ; and 
for him, as for all nobl.est natures, a life of transparent truthfulness 
was alike an instinct and a necessity. This absolute sincerity is the 
key to his character, as it was always the mainspring of his conduct. 
It was this which led him to reject indignantly the compromises with 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. I 17 



his conscience which from time to time were proposed to him. It was 
this which impelled him when he discovered a truth to proclaim it, 
when he detected an error, to expose it, when he saw an evil, to try to 
remedy it, and when he could do a good, even to his enemies, to do it. 
He had the defect of his qualities ; — an inordinate confidence in his 
own judgment. He had also the defects of his race; — the hot Welsh 
temper, passionate and resentful under provocation, and the moody 
Welsh fancy, — the wild and wistful melancholy of the Cymrian bards 
— too apt in his earlier years to disturb his mental balance with morbid 
scruples or desultory conceits, magnifying them into matters of lasting 
moment. Such a man would have been likely to provoke antagonism 
anywhere ; in Massachusetts, with her immitigable theocracy, he was 
sure to incur censure and final expulsion. 

Roger Williams lived five years in Massachusetts before he was 
banished. He spent the first six weeks in Boston, the rest of the time 
in Plymouth and Salem, and yet Boston was the seat of hostile pro- 
ceeding against him. How did it hapen that he was most hated where 
he was least known ? The explanation is simple. The new churches 
of the Bay were both bigoted and ambitious. They had established a 
sacerdotalism, more meddlesome and scarcely less despotic than the 
worst in Christendom. They wanted to consolidate and extend it. 
They had hitherto met no opposition ; but in Williams they found an 
original and independent mind, intractable to their yoke. Soon after 
his arrival, being invited to become a teacher of the Boston church, he 
refused, because the church still held communion with the mother 
church, and he coupled his refusal with emphatic reproof. Will you 
say that his conduct was as uncharitable as imprudent ? I make no 
apology for him further than to remark that the Anglican Church was 
then not only a retrogressive and a persecuting church, but also a main 
support of the autocratic pretensions of the Stuart kings. He had 
suffered from it in person, and he thought that to commune with it 
was to abet its tergiversation. The point, however, which I invite 
attention to is the utter frankness of his self-deliverance. The elders 
of the Bay, accustomed to a submissive deference from their juniors, 



Il8 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

were thunderstruck by it and never forgot or forgave it. They followed 
him to the senior church at Salem, to which he was soon called as 
teacher, with expostulation to the church for calling him, and so weak- 
ened his hold there that he was glad, a few months later, to remove to 
the more liberal jurisdiction of Plymouth. 

He remained at Plymouth, teaching in the church, but supporting 
himself by manual labor, nearly two years. His ministry was popular 
in the main and his person universally liked. Finally, however, he 
advanced some opinions which did not suit the steady-going Plymouth 
elders, and therefore, departing "something abruptly," he returned to 
Salem. There he acted as assistant to Mr. Skelton, the aged pastor of 
the church, and when Mr. Skelton died, less than a year later, became 
his successor. At Salem he was again under the surveillance of the 
rulers and elders of the Bay, and they were swift to make him sensible 
of it. He had written in Plymouth, for the Plymouth Governor and 
Council, a treatise on the Massachusetts Patent, in which he had main- 
tained his doctrine that the King could not give the settlers a right to 
take away from the natives their land without paying them for it. He 
was not a lawyer but an ethical teacher, and it was doubtless as such 
that he maintained this opinion. In our day its ethical correctness is 
not disputed. It has always been good Rhode Island doctrine. He 
also criticised the patent because in it King James claimed to be the 
first Christian prince who discovered New England, and because he 
called Europe Christendom or the Christian World. Williams did not 
scruple to denounce these formal fictions in downright Saxon as lies. 
He does not appear to have been, at any period of his life, a paragon of 
conventional propriety. 

A rumor of the treatise got abroad, though it remained unpub- 
lished. The patent happened to be a sensitive point with the magis- 
trates. It had been granted in England to an English trading company, 
and its transfer to Massachusetts was an act of questionable legality. 
Moreover it was exceedingly doubtful whether the rulers, in exercising 
the extensive civil jurisdiction which they claimed under it, did not 
exceed their authority. They were apprehensive of proceedings to 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



II 9 



forfeit it, and therefore were easily alarmed at any turning of attention 
to it. When they heard of the treatise they sent for it, and, having 
got it, summoned the author "to be censured." He appeared in an 
unexpectedly placable mood, and not only satisfied their minds in 
regard to some of its obscurer passages, but offered it, since it had 
served its purpose, to be burnt. The magistrates, propitiated by his 
complaisance, appeared to have accepted the offer as equivalent to a 
promise of silence, though it is impossible that he, the uncompromis- 
ing champion of aboriginal rights, can ever have meant to give, or even 
appear to give, such a promise. Accordingly when they heard soon 
afterwards that he was discussing the patent they were deeply incensed, 
though it was doubtless the popular curiosity excited by their own 
indiscreet action which elicited the discussion. 

Their anger was aggravated by another doctrine then put forth by 
him, namely, that an oath ought not to be tendered to an unregenerate, 
or, as we should say, an unreligious man, because an oath is an act of 
worship, and cannot be taken by such a man without profanation. The 
sentiment resembles that which lately led the House of Commons to 
refuse the oath of office to a member-elect because he was a professed 
atheist. He also taught that an oath, being an act of worship, could 
not properly be exacted from any one against his will, and that even 
Christians ought not to desecrate it by taking it for trivial causes. 
This latter view likewise finds its modern analogue in the growing feel- 
ing that oaths, too indiscriminately administered, lose their sanctity 
and come to be regarded as little more than idle forms. The doctrine 
was specially offensive at the time because the General Court, alarmed 
by a report of "episcopal and malignant practices against the coun- 
try," had just then decided to test the fidelity of the people by tender- 
ing to them an oath which was virtually an oath of allegiance to the 
colony instead of the king. The measure was obnoxious to legal as 
well as religious objection. It was opposed by the people as well as 
by Williams, and for the time frustrated. It has been said that his 
opposition was a blow at the very foundations of civil society ; but in 
Rhode Island a simple affirmation or subscription to an engagement, 
has been found as efficacious as an oath. 



120 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

The magistrates again instituted proceedings against him, at first 
subjecting him to the ordeal of clerical visitation, then formally sum- 
moning him to answer for himself before the General Court. At the 
same time the Salem church was arraigned for contempt in choosing 
him as pastor while he was under question. The court, however, did 
not proceed to judgment, but allowed them both further time for 
repentance. It so happened that the inhabitants of Salem had a peti- 
tion before the court for "some land at Marblehead Neck, which they 
did challenge as belonging to their town." The court, when the peti- 
tion came up, refused to grant it until the Salem church should give 
satisfaction for its contempt, thus virtually affirming that the petition- 
ers had no claim to justice even, so long as they adhered to their recu- 
sant pastor. Williams was naturally indignant. He induced his 
church — "enchanted his church," says Cotton Mather — to send letters 
to the sister churches, appealing to them to admonish the magistrates 
and deputies of their "heinous sin." He wrote the letters himself. 
His Massachusetts contemporaries say he was "unlamblike." Un- 
doubtedly they heard no gentle bleating in those letters, but rather the 
reverberating roar of the lion chafing in his rage. The churches 
repelled the appeal ; and then turning to the Salem church, besieged it 
only the more assiduously, laboring with it, nine with one, to alienate 
it from its pastor. What could the one church do, — with the magis- 
tracy against it, the clergy against it, the churches and the people 
against it, muttering their vague anathemas, and Salem town suffering 
unjustly on its account, — what could it do but yield ? It yielded vir- 
tually if not yet in form ; and Williams stood forth alone in his opposi- 
tion to the united power of Church and State. If, in the agony of his 
isolation, his heart distracted and his mind unstrung, "a power girt 
round with weakness," he uttered words better unuttered, we surely 
can afford to forget them and leave them for his traducers to gloat over 
if they will, while we remember only the grandeur of his solitary 
struggle. 

The fateful court day came at last. The court assembles, magis- 
trates and deputies, with the clergy to advise them. Williams appears, 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 121 

not to be tried, but to be sentenced unless he will retract. He re- 
affirms his opinions. Mr. Hooker, a famous clerical dialectician, is 
chosen to dispute with him, and the solemn mockery of confutation 
begins. The future of Rhode Island, to some extent the future of the 
world, hangs suspended on the issue. Will he, like his church, worn 
out and desperate, blenching before the unknown, lose heart and yield ? 
Never! He stands unshaken in the " rockie strength " of his convic- 
tions. He is ready " not only to be bound and banished, but to the fi ir 
them." So, hour after hour, he argues unsubdued, till the sun sinks 
low and the weary court adjourns. On the morrow [Friday, October 
9, 1635], still persisting in his glorious "contumacy," he is sentenced, 
the clergy all save one advising, to be banished, or, to adopt the apolo- 
getic but felicitous euphemism of his great adversary, John Cotton, 
" enlarged " out of Massachusetts. He was allowed at first six weeks, 
afterwards until spring, to depart. But in January the magistrates, 
having heard that he was drawing others to his opinion, and that his 
purpose was to erect a plantation about Narragansett Bay, "from 
whence the infection would easily spread," concluded to send him by 
ship, then ready, to England. The story is familiar how Williams, 
advised of their intent, baffled it by plunging into the wilderness, 
where, after being " sorely tost for one fourteen weeks, in a bitter win- 
ter season, not knowing what bread or bed did mean," he settled with 
the opening spring, on the east bank of the Seekonk, and there built 
and planted. 

Thus far I have not mentioned his great doctrine of soul-liberty. 
There are those who maintain that it had nothing to do with his ban- 
ishment. Let us see. When, shortly after his arrival, the Massachu- 
setts authorities rebuked the Salem church for choosing him as a 
teacher, they urged two objections to him, namely, his rigid separatism 
and reproof of the Boston church, and his opinion that " the magis- 
trate ought not to punish for breaches of the first table unless thereby 
the civil peace be disturbed," this being the form in which he then 
declared the right of the soul-liberty. This shows that Williams had, 
immediately upon his arrival, proclaimed the doctrine, and that the 
16 



122 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

magistrates had immediately recognized its utter incompatibility with 
the cast-iron polity which they were endeavoring to establish. When 
he was arraigned, three months before the sentence, the doctrine was 
one of the "dangerous opinions" laid to his charge, and the clergy 
being consulted, declared that he who should obstinately maintain that 
the civil magistrate cannot intermeddle to stop a church from heresy 
or apostasy ought to be removed. The clergy were ready to banish 
him for that alone. Williams says his doctrine was one cause of his 
banishment. He also says that when the sentence was pronounced, 
Governor Haynes recapitulated the grounds of it, his maintenance of 
soul-liberty being one. We have seen that the magistrates wanted to 
prevent his plantation because they feared " infection " from it. What 
infection ? Did they think, if he preached on Narragansett Bay the 
duty of a rigid separatism, the inadequacy of the Massachusetts patent, 
or his theory of oaths, that far-off Boston would hear among her triple 
hills the ringing echoes of his sermon ? It is absurd to suppose it. 
No ; what they feared was a contiguous plantation where faith would 
be free and persecuted consciences find a refuge. What they feared 
was soul-liberty put in practice ; and if they feared it in practice on 
Narragansett Bay, would they tolerate the preaching of it in Massa- 
chusetts ? The question answers itself. Other matters may have 
angered them more at the moment, but this was the animating princi- 
ple, the great tap-root of all Williams's offenses, and it is incredible 
that they did not perceive it. It was, in fact, a virtual denial of the 
very jurisdiction which they exercised when they banished him. 2 

Permit me to pause a moment longer at this point. The Massa- 
chusetts historians tell us that the treatment of Williams was excep- 
tionally gentle and considerate. This is true. He was neither incar- 
cerated, nor scourged, nor hanged, like some later victims of Puritan 
persecution. The treatment of him does not attract curiosity and 
rivet attention because it was unusually severe, but because it was a 
pivotal transaction in universal history. His trial involved not him 
alone, but also the grand idea which he represented, and it fascinates 
mankind because, while he was condemned, the idea triumphed through 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 23 



his fidelity, and because, though he may have been banished, it at least 
was "enlarged." The historians say, in excuse for Massachusetts, 
that she did but follow her instinct of self-preservation. In one sense 
this likewise is true. She was then simply an incorporation of Puritan 
Congregationalism clothed with civil powers. She could not accept 
the new idea without undergoing a transformation into a larger and 
freer form. She chose to preserve herself as she was. She who has 
reaped so many glories in her crowded career was not ripe for this, the 
most glorious of all, and so with mistaken scorn she passed it on to 
little Rhode Island. But this is not what her historians mean. They 
mean that she was in jeopardy from the opinions put forth by Williams 
in regard to oaths and the patent. This is a singular exaggeration. 
He was only a village pastor. He had little or no influence beyond 
his parish — for there were then no newspapers, and he had no vantage 
of political prestige or position. The only way in which his opinions 
were likely to become generally known was by persecution. The his- 
torians urge further that he was eccentric, pugnacious, persistent, trou- 
blesome. Undoubtedly he was. When nature wants to preserve a 
precious seed, she encloses it in a bitter and prickly integument. So 
when the time comes, in the order of human improvement, for a new 
and progressive idea, we often find it lodged in a tough and thorny and, 
if you will, pugnacious personality, to fight for, protect and propagate 
it. Williams had his faults, but some of them, in the circumstances, 
did the work of virtues. A man who had to endure what he had to 
endure from Puritan clergymen and elders, laboring to " reduce him 
from his errors," was entitled to have some faults. The faults which 
he had have been grossly exaggerated. The apologists of Massachu- 
setts, with zeal beyond knowledge, have raked the gutters of contro- 
versy and ransacked the rubbish-heaps of unaccredited rumor for testi- 
mony against him, forgetful that he was, with all his failings, the 
trusted and cherished friend of John Winthrop, the wisest and the best 
of the Puritans. Massachusetts can spare such apologists. She banished 
Roger Williams not for faults of behavior, but for errors of opinion. 
Her great desire was to found an orthodox State, — a State where the 



124 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



same theology should be preached in all the pulpits and believed at all 
the firesides, and where, generation after generation, her citizens could 
become religious and virtuous according to law. The individualism of 
Roger Williams antagonized her, and she expelled him because, thank 
Heaven, she could not assimilate him. She was, indeed, exacerbated 
by her personal and political antipathies and resentments, but her main 
motive was to be true to her darling orthodoxy. For long years she 
was true to it, doing ugly and cruel things for the sake of it, stamping 
it broad and deep on her people, and only gradually learning, by bitter 
experience, that human nature is too vital and vast and various to take 
the mould of any compulsory creed without injury, but needs for its 
best development the elastic and congenial element of soul-liberty. 
She has nobly atoned for her narrowness by the universality of her 
later culture. We are all glad to learn of her now. Nevertheless she 
does not forget the iron discipline of her infancy, but still, through all 
the endless variety of her newer predilections, looks reverently back to 
it, and still points, with hereditary pride, to her permanent stain of 
Puritan orthodoxy as the very backbone of the Commonwealth. To 
this day the Massachusetts man, when he talks orthodoxy, means the 
Calvinistic creed of the Puritans ; whereas the Rhode Islander, when 
he talks of orthodoxy, which is seldom, means his own creed, if he 
professes any, though doubtless they both alike now know full well 
that absolute orthodoxy is only a delightful dream of the theologian or 
the philosopher — not the privilege of mankind. 

We left Roger Williams in Seekonk. He had built there and 
planted. April came, and May, and his corn was springing to gladden 
him with hope of harvest. He expected to abide there ; but now 
a message, sent by Governor Winslow, informs him that he is within 
the limits of Plymouth, and advises him to move across the river. He 
accepts the advice and, sometime in June, breaks up and departs. In 
fancy we can follow his little boat, laden with his household, as it 
emerges from its shady haven, and pushes out into the Seekonk. It 
turns southward with its silent passengers, and slowly they make their 
way, in the unbroken solitude, betwixt high wooded banks, reduplicated 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



125 



in the pellucid river, luxuriant with verdure and glittering with the 
sunshine of June. But the sylvan landscape had no charm for them. 
They see their Seekonk home receding, and their hearts fill with an 
uncontrollable anguish. Thrice exiled — from England, from Salem, 
from Seekonk ! Will an implacable persecution never cease to pursue 
them ? They paddle on with mournful memories ominous of evil 
instead of hope. But hark ! an animating salutation, Whatcheer, Netop, 
Whatcheer, rings from a neighboring rock, and the red men of the 
forest give them the welcome which their white brothers have refused. 
They halt and return the greeting. Again they proceed under happier 
auspices, and, with their sounding oars, startle the wild duck from the 
river's rushy marge and daze the antlered stag on the remoter hill. 
They round the precipitous cliffs of Tockwotton, and, gazing south- 
ward through the varied vista of the river, catch momentary glimpses 
of the bay beyond. The noble prospect does not detain them. They 
turn to the north and, hugging the eastern shore, ascend along the 
base of towering hills, clad with primeval oaks, and enter the cove, 
whose natural basin, receiving the unpolluted tides of the bay, and the 
virgin waters of the Woonasquatucket and the Moshassuck, diffuses 
them widely into inlet and pool, across sandy bar and over sedgy flats, 
now traversed by busy thoroughfares, but then frequented only by 
flocks of feeding waterfowl or by the dusky fowler in his frail canoe. 
They continue their steady course until before them they behold a 
spring, which, gushing from the verdant turf and pouring its crystal 
tribute to the cove, invites them to disembark. There, beaching their 
boat on the smooth white sand, they step ashore — Williams, his wife, 
his children and his five companions. They slake their thirst at the 
spring, they invoke the divine blessing, and Providence Plantations are 
begun. 3 

The story of the beginnings of a State or city, truly told in detail, 
is always interesting. The story of infant Providence cannot be so 
told. Unlike Boston, she had no diarist. Her public records are 
imperfect. We do not know how her settlers, without seed-time or 
harvest, subsisted the first year. The bay with its fish and fowl, the 



126 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

forest with its game and berries, must have been their constant 
resource. They probably procured some supplies from the natives. 
There is no tradition of desperate destitution such as more than once 
befel the Plymouth settlers. We may be sure, however, that their life 
was outwardly very poor and plain, full of hardship and privation, 
pinched at every point, however it may have been spiritually enriched 
by the freedom which they enjoyed. But if their story could be told, 
my time is much too short for me to tell it. I must be content to pass 
rapidly from point to point, briefly treating a few of the more charac- 
teristic topics. 

Two topics of interest from their relation to the infant town and 
its founder meet us at the threshold. When Williams went from Ply- 
mouth to Salem he drew several persons after him. When he came to 
Providence, he had five companions and was soon joined by others. 
They seem to have been not fugitives, but followers. These facts show 
that, however contentious he was, he had along with his contentious- 
ness a singularly attractive nature. The ingenuous cleverness which 
in his youth won the favor of the crabbed but intrepid old jurist, Sir 
Edward Coke, still bore its natural fruit. "The people," says Win- 
throp, "were taken by the apprehension of his godliness," which, 
translated into modern speech, means that he had, besides his more 
distinctively Christian graces, some of the magnetism of a popular 
leader. This, not less than the prospect of religious freedom, drew the 
earliest settlers. But they were the merest handful, and they would 
not have ventured, remote from succor, among a powerful tribe of sav- 
ages without some assurance of safety. Williams could give it. He 
had, during his stay in Plymouth and Salem, zealously cultivated the 
good will of the natives, learning their language and studying their 
character, his " soul's desire " being to become a missionary among 
them. " God was pleased," he says, " to give me a painful, patient 
spirit to lodge with them in their filthy, smoky holes to gain their 
tongue." He was thus, as it were, providentially prepared for his 
work. He had the affable disposition, at once communicative and 
inquisitive, which easily captivated these simple children of the forest. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 127 

They, too, were taken by the magnetism and mastery of his high 
moral qualities. They instinctively believed in him. The great Narra- 
gansett Sachems, Canonicus and Miantonomi, distrustful of the iron- 
visaged elders of the Bay, gave him their friendship without reserve. 
They deeded to him a territory like a principality, and he, with similar 
munificence, shared it equally with his fellow-settlers. Thus his influ- 
ence over his countrymen drew around him the nucleus of the new 
State, and his influence over the Indians gained for it domain and 
security. For more than a generation the little plantation lay safely 
nestled and fostered in the very lap of barbarism, through the unwav- 
ering regard entertained for him by these savage but magnanimous 
sachems. The city has testified its gratitude to him in imperishable 
bronze and granite ; it ought to testify its gratitude to them in some 
equally appropriate form. 

The settlers soon felt the need of a civil government, but they 
had no charter under which they could establish one. They there- 
fore agreed to be governed by "the major assent " of the freemen of 
the town "only in civil things." At first the government was a pure 
democracy, all the powers being exercised by the freemen collectively 
in town meeting. It was too rudimentary to last. In 1640 a new sys- 
tem was agreed to, by which the powers were delegated to some 
extent, and provision was made for compulsory arbitrations in judicial 
matters. This was a step forward, but only a short step tentatively 
taken. In 1647 the town united with the three other towns, Ports- 
mouth, Newport, and Warwick, under the first charter. This charter 
was simply a grant of civil powers, not a constitution. It left the set- 
tlers to frame a government for themselves. The government formed 
by them was rather a confederation of the towns than a compact 
State. Under it no law could be enacted without the consent of the 
towns. It has been likened to the Federal Union ; but the integra- 
tion was far less organic and complete. It was not until later, under 
the second charter, that the towns were willing to part with their 
autonomy and become fully subject to a central authority. But mean- 
while, the first charter was a great boon to the settlers in their rela- 



128 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



tions with the sister colonies, since it affiliated them to the mother 
country and legitimated their government. 

It will be observed that soul-liberty was secured in the first com- 
pact, not by grant, but by limitation, the settlers agreeing to be gov- 
erned " only in civil things." This was characteristic of Williams, 
who wrote the compact, though he did not sign it ; for his doctrine 
was that every man has a natural right to follow the dictates of his 
conscience, so long as he keeps the civil peace ; a right which the 
State can neither give, nor take away, nor control, even with the con- 
sent of the individual, since no man can absolve himself from fealty to 
his conscience. The limitation was tantamount to a constitutional 
declaration of the right in its widest meaning, covering not only 
freedom of faith and worship, but also freedom of thought and speech 
in every legitimate form. The right has never been expressed with 
more completeness. There are some who would have us think that 
the phrase " only in civil things," was simply a lucky hit, and that 
Williams, when he coined it, did not really comprehend its significance. 
My opinion is that both then and before then his doctrine was that the 
authority of government extends only to civil things, and that he had 
merely to exchange his pulpit phraseology for the plain vernacular of 
the people to make it manifest. The man who packs such a world of 
meaning into four little words does not do it by a slip of the pen. He 
clearly saw the principle and its universality ; if he failed to foresee 
all the questions which might arise in applying it, and to solve them in 
advance, he simply failed to do then what no man since then has suc- 
ceeded in doing. There is, between the undisputed provinces of civil 
law and spiritual freedom, a disputed frontier which never has been, 
and probably never can be, definitively apportioned. 

We sometimes hear it said that the idea of soul-liberty was not 
original with Roger Williams. Grant it. He needs no doubtful 
blazon to enhance his glory. When the Great Master declared, " God 
is spirit, and they who worship Him, must worship in spirit and truth," 
He lifted religion into a region far above all earthly rule, the region of 
soul-liberty. The church did not or would not so understand Him. It 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. I 29 

arrogated infallibility and spiritual domination, and persecution for her- 
esy logically ensued. In the multitude of martyrs there were doubtless 
some who obscurely felt, and others who dimly discerned, the great truth. 
But did they utter it ? If they did, their words passed like a broken 
echo in the confusion of the times. History has no record of them. 
The common cry was for toleration, for toleration as a policy, not as a 
right. But at last the church split into sects, and the Protestant sect 
again split, and splintered again, and the individual conscience, break- 
ing from its pupilage, grew suddenly into a deeper and ever deeper 
sense of its own inner supremacy. Then it was that the master idea 
emerged, uttered feebly at first, not by powerful leaders in church and 
State, but by despised sectaries hunted by the law. Then it was that 
Williams received it. Perhaps he read it in some stray tract or pam- 
phlet, such as then were scattered secretly in England, like seeds 
dropped by birds in their flight ; perhaps he heard it in some nocturnal 
conventicle, from lips still livid with the pain of the pillory and the 
branding iron ; or perhaps he listened to it, in some lonely lane or foot- 
way, from a fellow fugitive communicating it as they fled. Somehow 
it came to him, and he brought it, fermenting in his brain, to the New 
World. For five years he meditated and matured it among the stub- 
born dogmatists of Plymouth and the Bay. He was an impulsive 
enthusiast, easily captivated by new ideas, but it was characteristic of 
him to examine them to the bottom and abandon them if he found 
them baseless or unsound. His contemporaries describe him as " pre- 
cipitate and unsettled," having "a windmill in his head." They saw 
the superficies of his character, not its deep foundation. His faith in 
soul-liberty never wavered. He came to Rhode Island to evangelize 
the natives ; but when he saw the opportunity offered by the settle- 
ment growing around him, he recognized the providential work ap- 
pointed for him, and set himself to perform it. He had not merely 
faith in his idea, but he had also such a mastery of it that he knew 
how to put it in practice. This is his glory, that he, first among men, 
made it a living element of the State, turning it from thought to fact, 
and giving it a corporate existence in which it could perpetuate and 
17 



I30 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

practically approve itself. There is no power like the power of a great 
idea when it once gets a firm foothold among men. The great idea, 
here first politically incorporated and shown forth in lively experiment, 
has made the circuit of the globe, driving bigotry like a mist, and 
superstition like a shadow before it, and sowing broadcast among men 
and nations the fruitful seeds of peace and progress, of freedom and 
fraternity. The little wisp of glimmering light which hung like a halo 
over the cradle of infant Providence, has brightened and expanded 
until it irradiates the world. This is and will be forever the unique 
glory of our beloved city. 

The first settlers were exposed to a triple danger : From the 
Indians, from the neighboring colonies, from their own dissensions. 
The Narragansetts, though friendly, were but one of several tribes. 
What if the tribes, alarmed by the rapid increase of the whites, were 
to unite for their destruction ? Such a union was projected by the 
Pequots, a powerful Connecticut tribe, during the first year of the set- 
tlement. In the autumn of that year Pequot ambassadors were at the 
court of Canonicus to win over the Narragansetts. The Massachu- 
setts rulers, informed of it, sent hastily to Williams, to avert the peril. 
Taking his life in his hand, he sped, in a poor canoe, through stormy 
winds and threatening seas, to the great sachem's wigwam. There for 
three clays and three nights he was forced by his business to "lodge 
and mix with the Pequots, looking nightly for their bloody knives at 
his throat." He finally defeated their design and effected a league 
between the Narragansetts and the English which was quickly followed 
by the annihilation of the Pequot tribe. Subsequently he performed 
other similar services. Do you ask me if his persecutors relented ? 
No ! Winthrop proposed his recall, but they rejected the proposal. 
They pursued a Machiavelian policy with the Indians, fomenting their 
quarrels, reckless of the safety of Rhode Island. They harassed the 
Narragansetts, who were guilty of befriending the Rhode Island here- 
tics, by harsh exactions, and maddened them by counselling the wicked 
murder of Miantonomi by Mohegan Uncas. 4 In 1643 the colonies of 
Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Haven formed a con- 



ANNIVERSARY OF 1'KOVIDENCE. I 3 1 

federacy for mutual defense. The Rhode Island towns were not 
invited to join it. They asked to join it, but they were denied unless 
they would subject themselves to Plymouth or Massachusetts. The 
condition was refused. They preferred the terrible hazard of Indian 
massacre to security on such terms. Fortunately the good will of the 
Narragansetts kept them unmolested until the storm of Philip's War 
broke over New England, and after carrying havoc to the outlying 
villages of Massachusetts, swept the mainland towns of Rhode Island 
like a hurricane. In that war the Narragansetts perished with the 
Wampanoags, and the dread of Indian hostilities ceased to trouble the 
colonies. 

The danger from the neighboring colonies was more insidious and 
scarcely less formidable. They hated the heretical towns and pertina- 
ciously sought to destroy them as independent bodies politic by extend- 
ing their jurisdiction over them. Plymouth, already in undisputed pos- 
session of the eastern shore of Narragansett Bay, claimed the island 
of Rhode Island; Connecticut, the Narragansett country; and Massa- 
chusetts, parts of Providence and Warwick. It would be tedious to 
explain the grounds of these claims, or to describe the efforts which 
were put forth, both here and in England, on the one side and the 
other, to establish and defeat them. The contest was long and severe, 
but on the part of Massachusetts, the bitterest aggressor, grounded on 
the baldest usurpations. It involved not only the territorial integrity 
of the Rhode Island towns, but also that soul-liberty, so dear to them 
all, which was staked on their preservation. The contest was a bless- 
ing in disguise. It put the towns on their mettle, and it developed 
among the people, by giving them one great endangered interest to 
protect in common, that public spirit which is so necessary to organic 
civil life. They came out of the contest, triumphant at last, but when 
they came out of it, they came fused and welded together, by the heat 
and pressure of their struggle, into a single commonwealth. 

I mentioned a third danger, — the dissensions of the settlers. The 
population of Rhode Island, of Providence especially, was singularly 
heterogeneous. She offered herself as an asylum for distressed con- 



132 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

sciences. The consequence was, professors of every form of dissent 
from the Puritan faith were represented here. They were men, too, 
who came, not so much because they were heretical as because they 
were peculiar, and in the promiscuous medley here, could comfortably 
enjoy themselves. Indeed, life in Providence, in those days, must have 
had a spicy zest and variety not to be found elsewhere in New Eng- 
land. But it had its dangers, too. Soul-liberty was supposed to give 
every one the right not only to entertain but also to utter his every 
opinion. When men claim and concede this right they have need not 
only to be considerate of others, when they speak for themselves, but 
also patient of others when they find themselves contradicted. This 
is a degree of self-control which is seldom acquired without discipline. 
The first settlers had had no discipline, and, yielding to their natural 
impulses, they gave their tongues too free a license. The result was a 
plentiful crop of feuds and controversies, some of them envenomed by 
vindictive passions. Politics caught the infection, and became virulent 
and factious. Roger Williams tried to play the part of peacemaker, 
but he was wiser in precept than in practice. His feud with William 
Harris was one of the most inveterate that afflicted the Plantation. 
Harris was a man of prodigious force of will and great natural ability, 
but aggressive and violent, ever ready to embroil the community to 
carry his ends. The settlers called him the Firebrand. It was a feud 
of this kind which gave Massachusetts, by submission to her of some 
of the parties, a pretext for setting up her jurisdiction in Providence 
and Warwick. Apparently, therefore, the first effect of soul-liberty 
was an excessive individualism. For the purpose, however, of testing 
its practicability, nothing could have been better ; for if soul-liberty 
was then practicable here, it was not impracticable anywhere. It suc- 
cessfully stood the test. Under the second charter the danger from 
internal discords and disorders diminished, and gradually, after Philip's 
War, the people settled to the hard and monotonous work of material 
and business development. 

Shortly after Philip's War an event occurred which deserves men- 
tion, namely, the death of Roger Williams. His services to the col- 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



ony had been varied and great. He had twice visited England for 
her ; first to procure the first charter, and again to procure the revoca- 
tion of Coddington's commission. He had often filled the highest 
civil offices at home. He had served as captain of militia in Philip's 
War when seventy-seven years old, so indomitable was his patriotism. 
I have largely depicted him already ; I wish to add a few touches more. 
He has suffered in the popular conception from two causes. On the 
one hand, his fame as the Founder of the State has shed over his 
character a sort of a mythical glamour, which has not so much idealized 
as unrealized it. Nothing could be falser. No more real piece of 
human flesh of toughest British fibre ever existed. On the other 
hand, the fame of his polemical writings has produced a different and 
wholly incongruous impression ; namely, that he was simply a violent 
and incorrigible disputant, who had the luck to maintain one new and 
good idea. This grossly falsifies by exaggeration. As a controversial- 
ist he had the vices of his temper and his times ; but one might 
almost as well try to portray Milton from his pamphlets as Williams 
from his polemical writings. Let him who would learn what manner 
of man he was from his writings, read his letters, not one here and 
there, but the series consecutively, so as to realize their cumulative 
effect, and he will gradually become aware that he is making the 
acquaintance of a large and affectionate, philanthropical, public-spirited 
and many-sided nature. His versatility was extraordinary. He was, by 
turns, reporter, scholar, clergyman, trader, farmer, diplomatist, teacher, 
linguist, legislator, judge and man of letters. A man is denoted by 
his friendships. He numbered among his friends the Winthrops, Mil- 
tons, Vane and Cromwell, the noblest of his contemporaries. He was 
in his day, the most modern mind in America. He exhibited, two 
hundred and fifty years ago, the humanitarianism which is supposed to 
be peculiar to the present century. His magnanimity was inexhausti- 
ble. " Sir," Governor Winthrop wrote to him, " we have often tried 
your patience, but we could never conquer it." The vaporous theologi- 
cal fancies which sometimes unsettled him in Massachusetts, seem to 
have vanished utterly in Rhode Island in his pre-occupation with prac- 



I 34 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

tical affairs. Nevertheless, his censors object, he was headstrong and 
pugnacious to the end ; — as witness his onslaught upon the Quakers. 
The objection must be allowed ; but then he had the amplitude and 
the strength of the gnarled oak as well as its nodosity, and when he 
died, a great figure passed away, and Rhode Island history became 
more commonplace and uninteresting. 

From Philip's War to the Revolution was a century. The history 
of Providence during that century has no striking event until the last 
decade, preluding the Revolution. It is not, however, so much the 
striking events as the permanent results of an era that determine its 
importance. Eras which furnish the least for history have sometimes 
done the most for mankind. Sometimes, too, an era of dull monotony, 
showing on its surface little besides a steady material progress, has 
terminated in a great political change, which was all the while proceed- 
ing, by processes unrecognized, to its consummation. The century 
which ended in the Revolution was such an era. The material condi- 
tions then created and the material resources then accumulated were 
indispensable to the success of the Revolution. Nor could anything 
have been more favorable than just such a plodding period to the unin- 
terrupted development of that spirit of independence which culmi- 
nated in the Revolution. But this is a wider view than belongs to the 
occasion ; though, considering the prominence of the city in the Revo- 
lutionary war, a suggestion of it is not impertinent. 

The question for us now is, What were the builders and makers of 
the city doing during the century after Philip's War ? They had first 
to repair the ravages of that war. When it began, the town con- 
tained from seventy to eighty houses. More than half of them were 
burnt. Before the attack upon the town, all but a very few of the 
inhabitants fled to the island of Rhode Island for security. Many of 
them never returned. We do not know the number of the population 
remaining after the war, but it cannot have exceeded a thousand all 
told ; though the town then embraced the entire county and a part of 
Kent. If we could see the site of the city as it then was after repara- 
tion, we should see simply a single row of houses, mostly rude cabins, 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 135 



strung along the eastern shore from Fox Point to the mouth of the 
Moshassuck, clustering a little at the northern end. To the east we 
should behold the hills still imperfectly reduced to tillage, and to the 
west a wild waste of water and wood, with some natural herbage for 
cattle and thatch for the cabins. If we were to enter the houses we 
should find the rudest furniture and utensils in scant supply, and the 
inmates clad in durable, but extremely homely and well-worn attire. 
The life they lived was unembellished, but racy and wholesome as 
wilding fruit. The great elementary sources of human happiness were 
theirs — -home, family, friends, self-government, soul-liberty, and sound 
minds in sound bodies — and without stopping to ask whether life 
were worth living, they manfully set themselves to subduing the rough 
earth to their uses, which was then the great work to be done. 

This first work was exceedingly laborious. Forests had to be 
felled, stumps eradicated, rocks and stones unearthed and removed, 
walls built, the soil reclaimed, wolves and foxes exterminated, roads 
laid out and made, and bridges constructed. All this had to be accom- 
plished with the poorest implements. The patient drudgery — the 
tireless muscular and mental energy — of the first two or three genera- 
tions of our fathers, beyond what was necessary for a meagre liveli- 
hood, was thus stored up and indestructibly capitalized in the very 
substance of the soil for the benefit of their posterity. Land, say 
some of our modern theorists, is the free gift of nature, and it can no 
more be appropriated without injustice than the air or the ocean. 
What a silly fiction as applied to the farms of New England. 

But what were the villagers on the river-bank here doing ? They, 
too, were making the rough earth tillable and tilling it. Bucolic asso- 
ciations linger all about these hills. The houses had each their home 
lot, laid out to the eastward, with gardens, orchards, cornfields, and 
beyond them meadows or pastures with lowing kine. But the settlers 
also had the river and the bay before them inviting their enterprise. 
They were soon familiar with its treasure of fish and clams. Canoes 
and gradually boats were built. The growth was very tardy. Gov- 
ernor Hopkins counted the houses in 1732 and found only seventy- 



136 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

four on the east, and only twelve on the west side of the river. 6 The 
settlers were without exception poor. The capital necessary to organ- 
ize industry had to be accumulated by the slow savings of years. The 
first business organized for other than local purposes, was ship or ves- 
sel-building, quite extensively carried on at the mouth of the Moshas- 
suck. This led naturally to an increase of commerce, at first with 
Newport and other American ports, and finally with the West Indies and 
the African coast. Commerce with the West Indies and Africa intro- 
duced the first considerable manufacture, which was — I would gladly 
soften the shock — the manufacture of New England rum. Foreign 
commerce, however, did not greatly flourish here before the Revolu- 
tion. It was intercepted at Newport, which was more favorably situ- 
ated for the reception of foreign imports and for their coastwise 
distribution, and which moreover, owing to its greater wealth, had got 
the earlier start. 

It is not to be supposed that the commerce of Providence meas- 
ures the extent to which the inhabitants of Providence were engaged 
in maritime pursuits. As her population increased, many of her boys 
and young men, inured to hardship but tired of farm life and thirsting 
for adventure, enlisted in Newport merchantmen and whaleships. 
During the French and Spanish wars a still more exciting service 
allured them. Numerous privateers were fitted out, many of which 
prosecuted their perilous work with brilliant success. Thus was bred 
up and disciplined that hardy race of skillful mariners, intrepid as 
enterprising, the very Vikings of the Revolution, who, during the war, 
made the privateers of Providence a terror to British commerce. 
Much of the shipping of Newport, during her occupation by the 
British, was transferred to Providence, and there used in commerce or 
privateering. At the close of the war the commerce of Newport was 
ruined, and Providence, having the ships and the sailors, took the lead. 
For more than forty years her commerce prospered and increased. 
Her merchantmen and whaleships ploughed every sea, and her harbor 
was spectacular with stately vessels, coming and going, or lading and 
unlading at her busy wharves. The prominent business men of that 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 37 

period — the Browns, the Iveses, the Arnolds, the Hoppins, Cyrus 
Butler, Richmond Bullock, Edward Carrington and others — were 
merchants engaged in commerce. All honor to them ! For they not 
only built up the city while they built up their own fortunes, but they 
also introduced into the city, along with the commodities of many 
climes, the liberal spirit and the larger ideas which are inspired by con- 
tact with many nations. At no time, if tradition may be trusted, has 
Providence society more happily combined simplicity with elegance, 
and cordiality with intellectual charm. But the introduction of rail- 
roads changed the course of trade, and foreign commerce left the city 
for Boston and New York. Her deserted wharves now testify only of 
a glory which has passed. 

I have passed beyond the Revolution, let me return to it. The 
Revolutionary record of the city, like the Revolutionary record of the 
State, is preeminently patriotic. The State had long suffered in her 
commerce from Parliamentary taxes and restraints, and was therefore 
the more sensitive to any new encroachment. For more than ten 
years before the war her attitude was increasingly belligerent. The 
Stamp Act was a dead letter here. No Governor would swear to sup- 
port it ; no officer dared administer it ; and the General Assembly 
nullified it. In 1775 the State created a navy of her own, and gave the 
command of it to Abraham Whipple, of this city, who, obedient to his 
orders, forthwith captured the tender of the British frigate Rose, then 
off Newport, firing the first cannon fired at the Royal Navy in the war. 
The same year she recommended the creation of a Continental Navy. 
Congress heeded the recommendation, and when the fleet was built, 
appointed Esek Hopkins, a North Providence man, to command it. It 
was comparatively a simple matter for a State so long habituated to 
the practice of self-government, to renounce her allegiance. She 
renounced it and declared her independence two months before the 
declaration by Congress, and she is to-day the oldest sovereign State 
in the Union. 

The city went heartily along with the State in all these move- 
ments, some of which she originated. She eagerly embraced every 

18 



138 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

voluntary measure of non-importation and domestic manufacture by 
which the colonies manifested their independence. She first sug- 
gested, and by her decisive action in town meeting led the way to the 
Continental Congress of the Revolution. The popular spirit here was 
signally shown as early as 1772 in the burning of His Majesty's armed 
revenue schooner the Gaspee, grounded on Namquit Point, while chas- 
ing a sloop belonging to John Brown, an eminent merchant of the city. 
At his call volunteers mustered by the score to burn the hated vessel, 
and, manning eight long-boats under the command of Abraham Whip- 
ple, swooped down at night upon their quarry. After an exchange of 
shots, in which the first British blood in the Revolution was spilt, they 
captured the crew, put them ashore, then set the Gaspee on fire, and 
retiring saw it burst into flames and paint the midnight sky with a 
lurid portent of the approaching conflict. It was a patriotic and retal- 
iatory but illegal act. Nevertheless, its perpetrators were safe, though 
large rewards were offered for their discovery, because the people who 
did not participate in it were of the same mind with those who did. 

The city had the good fortune to number among her citizens a 
genuine statesman. Stephen Hopkins was a great man — great not 
only in capacity and force of mind, but also — what is much rarer — in 
originative faculty. He early investigated the question between the 
mother country and the colonies in its constitutional aspects, and mar- 
shalled the arguments on the side of the colonies with masterly ability. 
He found, moreover, an argument for independence, deeper than the 
logic of constitutional legitimacy, in the very nature of things, forbid- 
ding that this great country should remain merely a serviceable de- 
pendency of Great Britain. The value of his leadership cannot easily 
be overestimated ; but nevertheless his prescient mind never went 
farther in thought than his fellow-citizens were ready to follow in 
action, so cognate to him was the community in which he lived. If 
ever the city sees fit to commemorate her Revolutionary services in 
bronze or marble, let her pass the military and naval hero by and erect 
a simple statue to her great civilian, for he certainly, in his time, was 
her most representative man. 7 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



'39 



The Revolutionary history of the State is too familiar for re- 
hearsal today. The population of the State at the commencement of 
the war was 55,00c. For several years the island of Rhode Island was 
occupied by British troops, and the bay patrolled by British cruisers. 
The State was thus crippled in resources, and, owing to her extended 
water fronts, exposed to incessant depredations. She was obliged to 
incur heavy expenditures in men and means for her own protection. 
Nevertheless she nobly responded to the continental requisitions on 
both sea and land, and on the sea she far excelled, proportionately, any 
of her sisters. The city generously seconded the State. Her popula- 
tion was only 4,355 ; and her men capable of bearing arms 726. But 
if her men were few, her spirit was resolute; and forever, when the 
thrilling stories of Mifflin, and Trenton, and Princeton, and Yorktown 
are told, her prowess will be celebrated anew, and the martial glory of 
Hitchcock, and Thayer, and Talbot, and Olney will be freshly reflected 
upon her. 

Rhode Island came out of the war decimated and impoverished. 
The State and people alike staggered under a load of debt. It has 
been said there was not property enough in the State to pay the debt. 
The crisis was desperate, and the General Assembly met it with a 
desperate remedy ; namely, an emission of paper money to the amount 
of one hundred thousand pounds. The remedy operated in part as a 
bankrupt law and in part as a process of gradual liquidation. It alle- 
viated distress by diffusing it. But the paper rapidly depreciated and, 
by unsettling values, caused paralysis in mercantile transactions. The 
General Assembly endeavored to arrest the depreciation by severe 
penal laws, but without success. Things follow their tendencies 
regardless of human legislation. Fiction can never be trusted to do 
the work of fact. The swift, sharp remedy by bankruptcy, pure and 
simple, would doubtless have turned out much better than a resort to 
paper money, if the people would have submitted to it. The business 
of the State, its commerce especially, was irreparably injured by such 
a resort. The city appreciated this from the first. She was always on 
the side of a sounder policy, and gradually caused it to prevail. 



140 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

Rhode Island took no part in forming the Federal Constitution, 
and was the last State to adopt it. Her people had always freely gov- 
erned themselves, and naturally hesitated to assume Federal duties 
and restraints. They could not know, what we know so well, how 
light the pressure is of those duties and restraints, how immeasurable 
the advantages which accrue. They could not then know what we 
now know, that the Federal Union liberates far more than it restrains, 
in that while it is in one sense a limitation shutting down upon the 
States, it is in another and much truer sense a marvellous supplement- 
ary structure over-arching them, by which the people ascend to a par- 
ticipation in the larger influences, the ampler horizons, the grander and 
nobler life and destiny of the Nation. The opposition, however, was 
not so much opposition to the Federal principle as to the lack of con- 
stitutional safeguards, afterwards largely supplied by amendments. 
The seaport towns, Providence especially, always urged adoption, and 
finally secured it, though not until after too many exhibitions of fac- 
tious and purely partisan resistance. 

Contemporaneously with the adoption of the Federal Constitution, a 
young Englishman appeared here, bringing, pictured in his memory to 
the minutest detail, complete patterns of the Arkwright spinning 
machinery. A fortuitous conversation in New York with the captain 
of a Providence coasting sloop led to his coming ; but it was no mere 
fortuity which determined him to remain. He remained, an inhabit- 
ant of the State, because he found in Moses Brown and William Almy 
open minds to entertain and espouse his projects, with wealth to exe- 
cute them, a people capable and apt for his enterprises, and an abun- 
dance of water power. Nearly a century has gone by since Samuel 
Slater set his first seventy-two spindles into successful operation at 
Pawtucket, and, in the long retrospect, how magical his work appears, 
how marvellous and manifold the transformations which have resulted 
from it. The forces of nature became his apprentices. He touched, 
as it were, with his simple labor wand, the mighty river giant, squan- 
dering his unused strength among our northern hills, and, subduing, 
bound him forever to the service of mankind. He mustered, as it 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 141 

were, from wood and waste, from valley and hillside, from rocky ridge 
and corrugated cliff, the idle genii of a thousand wandering streams 
and reduced them to like obedience. In consequence of the impulse 
communicated by him, villages and hamlets have sprung up along the 
banks of every water-course which is capable of turning a mill-wheel. 
It is appalling to think how severely the State must have suffered, in 
the irreversible decay of her commerce, but for this new industry, 
which, gradually expanding, has continually opened new opportunities 
for labor and capital. The progress has not been an isolated progress. 
All the arts which minister to human happiness are more or less 
closely linked together — habent quod Jam commune vinculum — and 
when one flourishes the others are improved. The new industry gave 
a new market to the farmer. Many a Rhode Island farm would have 
been deserted before now but for the manufacturing village built 
beside it. It furnished employment to the mason, the carpenter, the 
carrier, the laborer. It brought custom to the merchant and the 
trader. It laid out highways and built railroads. It has given impe- 
tus to other manufactures, and to the mechanic and decorative arts. 
No part of the State has profited so much by it as this city. No part 
is more dependent on it for its prosperity. It behooves her not to let 
it decay. The South can manufacture the coarser fabrics more cheaply 
because her labor and raw material cost her less, and she will soon 
supply her own market for them. Rhode Island, therefore, to preserve 
her prestige, must aim more and more at beauty and perfection of 
workmanship, and to that end must carefully cultivate every art and 
discipline which will promote, and carefully avoid every practice and 
policy which may defeat her aim. 

My accomplished friend and former instructor, the President of 
the Rhode Island Historical Society, in a recent address to the society, 
has luminously shown how largely the State has been influenced and 
controlled in her material growth by her geographical features. The 
great feature of her geography is her magnificent bay, which, with its 
wealth of land-locked waters, its beautiful islands, its diversified shores 
and picturesque configuration of headland and haven and bay within 



142 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

bay, penetrates far inland, and which, safe of approach and easy of 
access, stands, as it were, with open arms and seaward look, inviting 
the commerce of the world. It indicates for the State, and especially 
for the city sitting regnant at its head, a commercial vocation. 
Another prominent feature is the numerous rivers and water-courses 
which, fed by tributary streams, descend with increasing volume to the 
bay. This feature makes the State, as if by the ordinance of nature, a 
manufacturing State. Commerce and manufactures — we have seen 
how both have flourished at different times ; commerce flourishes no 
longer ; but the great geographical peculiarity which formerly encour- 
aged and prospered it still remains ; it remains for the people, there- 
fore, without relaxing their hold upon manufactures, to revive it, and 
then, prosecuting both together, to fulfill the two-fold destiny pre- 
figured for them in the primordial structure of the State. What is 
there to prevent this, whenever a general revival of American com- 
merce occurs, if then the city, having completed her railway connec- 
tions with the west and the north and established suitable terminal 
facilities, shall have among her wealthier citizens a few able men who 
are enterprising and sagacious enough to improve the opportunity ? 

Among the influences which have formed the city, the influence 
of popular education has been prominent. Rhode Island was back- 
ward in establishing any system of free schools. The distinction 
between secular and religious instruction was formerly less clearly 
understood than now; and it was therefore quite natural for the people 
of Rhode Island to question the right of the State to interfere in the 
matter of education. Other causes concurred. Many of the towns were 
poor, and their population sparse. Men have to be educated to some 
extent in order to appreciate the value of education. It thus happens 
that the establishment of free schools is often the most bitterly op- 
posed by those who need them most. It was so in Rhode Island. Our 
first provision for such schools was enacted in 1800, at the instance of 
the Providence Association of Mechanics and Manufacturers. The act 
was unpopular, the people being unprepared for it, and, three years 
later, it was repealed. The city, however, having established her sys- 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



143 



tem, continued it notwithstanding the repeal. The system, greatly 
altered and improved, still exists. It needs no eulogy ; it is the city's 
pride. Every year numerous pupils graduate with a useful English 
education, such as the colleges of fifty years ago were incompetent to 
impart. The effect has been to enlarge, elevate and diversify the 
industrial life of the city. It is the public schools of the city which 
have kept her in the front rank of business cities. They have refined 
and invigorated her domestic, social and civic life. She owes a great 
debt of gratitude, which it well becomes her to acknowledge, to those 
public-spirited citizens who, nearly a century ago, perseveringly recom- 
mended the system to her people and finally secured its establishment, 
and, not less, to those other public-spirited citizens, who, in long suc- 
cession, without recompense, have superintended its operations, and 
who, by their continued suggestions of change and improvement, have 
gradually carried it to its present high efficiency. Many public serv- 
ices have been more prominent ; few more useful or meritorious. 

The public schools do much, but still they only make a beginning. 
They do best when they not only instruct, but also arouse their pupils 
and inbreed in them a noble ambition for improvement. Such pupils 
continue to learn while they continue to live. And the city does well 
to afford them educational aids, for it is among such that she must 
mainly look for her leaders in action and thought, and she will be for- 
tunate if she never looks in vain. The citizens have not been unmind- 
ful of the value of such aids. Let me mention the Athenaeum and 
the Public Library, the Mechanics Association, the Franklin Society, 
the Franklin Lyceum, the Historical Society, the Veteran Citizens' 
Association, the Soldiers and Sailors Historical Society, the Young 
Men's Christian Association, the Union for Christian Work, the Art 
Club, the Commercial Club, and the Board of Trade. Everybody 
appreciates the value of a good public library, especially when like 
ours it affords guidance as well as opportunity. The associations 
mentioned are less generally valued ; but they are all useful when 
rightly used. A good cause, a great idea or a good example, is never 
safer than when it is in the keeping of a society organized to develop 



144 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

and disseminate its influences and to pass them on with accumulated 
power from generation to generation. Such societies lift their mem- 
bers out of themselves by giving them high social or public purposes 
to work for, which is a primary point of civil discipline. They furnish 
an arena where new projects and opinions can be winnowed and sifted 
in debate and their crudities corrected by the common criticism. They 
are organs through which the solitary student or thinker can readily 
reach the public ear. Some of them educate their members not only 
in the theory, but also in the practice of philanthropic and Christian 
virtues. They ought to be perpetually re-invigorated with new life 
and energy, for the city cannot afford to have them languish and decay. 
Passing by the powerful influences of the churches and the press, 
I will mention one other educational agency, namely, Brown Univer- 
sity. I am aware that many citizens listen with incredulity when the 
value of the University to the city is mentioned. It does not, like the 
public schools, come home to every family and fireside, associated with 
the irresistible charm of childhood, and so does not gain the popular 
heart. But consider how much the city would be impoverished by the 
loss of it. Consider the many eminent citizens of Providence who 
have graduated from it, — Eddy, Maxcy, Burrill, Fenner, Russell, Pit- 
man, Burges, Wheaton, Whipple, Staples, Ames, Anthony, Jenckes, 
Arnold, the Iveses, the Aliens, and others, living and dead. What a 
cloud of witnesses for it, and witnesses, as the lawyers say, to be 
weighed, not counted. What a benefit to the city to have had such cit- 
izens. They gave her not their services only, but also their distinction. 
Imperfect as they were, they were continually doing something to keep 
fresh in the public mind those loftier ideals of manhood and citizenship 
which no people, however prosperous, can forget without degeneracy. 
Consider, also, the more direct influences exerted by the University. 
President Wayland lived among us nearly forty years — a mind of 
extraordinary calibre — foremost in every good cause, educational, in- 
dustrial, philanthropical, or reformatory, and prompt to answer every 
call upon him for council or instruction in every crisis or exegency of 
the city, the State or the nation. Associated with him was Professor 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDED I . 145 



Goddard, an elegant but robust mind, singularly sensitive to the signifi- 
cance of passing events, and ready always to lavish his rich treasures 
of wisdom and rare graces of expression in the inculcation of correct 
opinions on the important political and social topics of the times. 
Need I remind you, also, of the lamented Diman, with his finished 
scholarship ever at your service ; of Chace, with his acute intellect and 
large grasp of practical affairs, or of other college officers, living and 
dead, who have deserved well of the city ! The danger to a city given 
over to business, immersed in gainful pursuits, is that it will come to 
consider money the supreme good. You all know what that means. 
It means moral and spiritual corruption and decay. Now, I maintain 
that the University has been, and, if sustained, will continue to be a 
powerful counter influence. It communicates a tone, a sentiment, an 
atmosphere — blowing freshly from the fields of literature and philoso- 
phy, — an addition of new men, with their faces set toward the sunrise, 
introducing new motives and new ideas. Now and again it has given 
us leadership. I do not eulogize it ; it has its deficiencies ; it ought to 
be reinforced and improved. You appreciate its deficiencies, which is 
well ; I want you also to appreciate its value, which would be better ; 
and then, best of all, to labor heartily for its improvement, making it 
what it should be, the educational crown and brightest ornament of the 
city. 

It was not until 1832 that Providence became a city, with a City 
Government, by Mayor, Aldermen and Council. The first Mayor was 
Samuel W. Bridgham, a gentleman and lawyer of high repute. His 
successors, Thomas M. Burgess, Amos C. Barstow, Walter R. Dan- 
forth, Edward P. Knowles, James Y. Smith, William M. Rodman, 
Jabez C. Knight, George L. Clarke, William S. Hayward and Thomas 
A. Doyle, have all been able and energetic, some of them eminent men. 
Their names speak for them. Alas ! that the office is vacant to-day, 
and that he, the latest of them, who would most have rejoiced in this 
high festival, lies cold and dumb in his recent grave, taken away by a 
mysterious Providence when we most confidently counted on his pres- 
ence. For years he has been so completely identified with the city 
'9 



I46 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

that it seems almost like a violation of natural law for the celebration 
to proceed without him. Our eyes still look for his familiar figure, our 
ears still listen for his clarion voice, and, though baffled and disap- 
pointed, still refuse to be convinced that they will see and hear him no 
more forever. 8 

The city has been fortunate, also, in her Aldermen and Common 
Councilmen. The list includes numerous excellent and able, and many 
distinguished men. They served at first gratuitously, more recently 
for a small compensation. Manifestly, however, their services have 
been rendered, not for the pay, but to satisfy that sentiment of public 
duty which is the soul of good citizenship. For years now the service 
has been very onerous, requiring great prudence and sagacity. In the 
last quarter of a century the population of the city has more than 
doubled, and her costliest public works have been constructed. Dur- 
ing that period water has been introduced, the City Hall and many 
other public buildings have been erected, numerous new streets have 
been laid out, and numerous old ones altered and improved, bridges 
have been built and sewers constructed, and the police increased and 
reorganized. Doubtless the city owes much to the indefatigable 
energy of Thomas A. Doyle, very much to his exhaustless enthusiasm 
of civic service, but he could not have pressed these great works to 
completion without the cooperation of the Aldermen and Councilmen. 
Their accomplishment has involved an immense outlay of money. It 
would be folly to say that there has been no waste or extravagance ; but 
it is safe to say that there has been no wanton waste, and that many 
things censured as extravagant at first, have won approval in the end. 
Generally, without doubt, our municipal affairs have been wisely and 
economically administered. Thank Heaven ! there is no scandalous 
smirch of jobbery or peculation upon them. The future — nay, the 
present — still presents difficult problems to be solved, vast works to 
be performed. May the future never disgrace the past. It is the 
city's good fortune that the officers who expend her taxes are elected 
by the citizens who pay them, and are, therefore, under no temptation 
to bid for popularity by prodical expenditures. I venture to advise her 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. I ,| 7 

never to let either demagogue or doctrinaire delude her into relinquish- 
ing this great advantage so long as she can retain it. 

Fellow Citizens : — I must conclude my address, leaving many 
topics untouched. Fifty years ago the city celebrated her two hun- 
dredth anniversary. She was then in outward appearance but little 
more than a village of less than twenty thousand inhabitants. She 
had no worthy public buildings ; her streets were ill-wrought or poorly 
paved ; her commerce had begun to decline, and her manufactures 
were still an experiment. The late Judge Pitman delivered the bi-cen- 
tenary discourse. If at its conclusion, when for a moment he turned 
with anxious hope to the future, the angel of prophecy" had graciously 
unsealed his vision and shown him the city as she is to-day, with her 
borders enlarged, her population sextupled, her streets improved, with 
her massive City Hall, her commodious school-houses, her splendid 
churches, her charities, her comfortable houses and palatial mansions, 
her stately business structures, her numerous manufactories, her street 
railways, her central thoroughfares teeming with traffic and humming 
with industry, and her general aspect of metropolitan magnificence, 
the spectacle would have filled him with wonder and admiration. We 
are on the threshold of a new half-century. Its fifty years, marching 
in single file, advance invisibly through the mysterious region of the 
future, bringing with them the fortunes of the city. Would we, if we 
could, lift the veil which conceals them ? Would we not rather recoil 
with fear, lest, instead of seeing the city progressive and prosperous, 
her population sextupled again, we should see her lethargic, stationary 
or decaying? Such mutations have befallen other cities. I do not 
anticipate such for ours. She may not grow in the next half century 
so rapidly as in the last ; but with her great natural advantages, her 
disciplined business faculty and manifold experience, her prestige of 
past success, and still unfaltering confidence, she has only to maintain 
her breed of noble men, her supply of intelligent, virtuous and enter- 
prising citizens, to make her continuous progress assured. Let us 
then have faith in her destiny. Let us be true to her and labor for her 



I48 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY. 

improvement, not materially alone, but in all wise and excellent ways 
and things. Let us labor also for a truer realization of her great doc- 
trine of soul-liberty, disdaining any longer to be satisfied with the 
degenerate form of it which is but little better than a selfish and palsy- 
ing individualism, and endeavoring after that grander form, exemplified 
by Roger Williams himself, which enlarges while it liberates, and 
which, instead of isolating men, draws them together in free and 
friendly union for the promotion of every worthy public or philan- 
thropic end. Thus let us labor, my fellow citizens, and the city will 
surely grow and prosper, not only in wealth and population, but also, 
what is infinitely better, in mental, moral and spiritual life and power. 



NOTES. 



[Note i.J 
According to tradition, Roger Williams was born somewhere in Wales, the exact 
place being undetermined. Dr. Reuben A. Guild, however, produces a record which 
he thinks shows that the tradition is at fault. The record consists ut certain entries 
of baptism in the register of the parish church in Gwinear, a small town in Cornwall, 
England. The record is as follows, to wit: 

" Willyam Williams, son of Mr. William Williams, bap. 27 Nov. i^oS. Roger, 
2d son of William Williams, Gent., bap. 24 July 1600. Humphrey, son of William 
Williams, bap. 24 April 1625. John, son of Humphrey Williams, Gent. bap. at High 
Bickington, Devon. 1660." 

The inference is that the Roger Williams named in the record was born in 
Gwinear early in the year 1600. The question is whether he was the founder of 
Rhode Island. The date of birth, inferred from the baptism, corresponds perfectly 
with the allusions to his age which are to be found in the writings of Roger Williams. 
But Roger had two brothers, viz: Robert, who for a time resided in Providence, and 
afterwards in Newport, and a brother alluded to as a " Turkish merchant." Why, if 
the Gwinear Roger was the founder of Rhode Island, do not the names of these two 
brothers appear, since Roger is not the last name of the family in the register? Dr. 
Guild suggests two conjectural reasons. One is that the elder William Williams may 
have removed from Gwinear soon after the birth of Roger. This does not seem to be 
probable, because it is inferable from the record that Gwinear continued to be the resi- 
dence of the family until 1625, when Humphrey was baptized. The second reason is 
that as a rule only the baptisms of the eldest sons are entered of record, " they being 
in the direct line of succession," and that the baptism of Roger was entered because he 
was named for Sir Roger Williams, a famous soldier of the age of Elizabeth. Dr. 
Guild adduces no evidence to show that it was the rule or custom of the church to 
register only the baptisms of the eldest sons, and it does not seem probable that any 
such rule or custom existed. The fact that the eldest sons are " in the direct line of 
succession," does not afford a very satisfactory inference, for they may die childless, 
in which event the second sons succeed, and so on. The conjecture that an exception 
was made in favor of Roger because he was named for Sir Roger, is too fanciful to 
build upon. I have no wish to depreciate the Gwinear record. The Roger Williams 



150 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

named in it may be our Roger. My point is simply that the proof as yet is not 
plenary; though further investigation, which I trust Dr. Guild will diligently prose- 
cute, may make it so. I take pleasure in referring the curious reader to Dr. Guild's 
Monograph, entitled " Footprints of Roger Williams," recently published by Tibbitts 
& Preston, Providence, R. I., where the subject is discussed. 

[Note 2.] 

Governor Winthrop's Diary is much the most trustworthy authority in regard to 
the proceedings which ended in the banishment of Roger Williams. Under date of 
January 5, 1630 [O. S.], Winthrop notes the arrival of Roger Williams in the ship 
Lyon, under date of April 12. The same year we find the following, to wit: "At 
a court holden at Boston [upon information to the Governor, that they of Salem had 
called Mr. Williams to the office of teacher], a letter was written from the court to 
Mr. Endicott to this effect : That whereas Mr. Williams had refused to join with the 
congregation at Boston, because they would not make a public declaration of their 
repentance for having communion with the churches of England, while they lived 
there; and besides had declared his opinion, that the magistrate might not punish the 
breach of the Sabbath, nor any other offence, as it was a breach of the first table ; 
therefore they marvelled they would choose him without advising with the council ; 
and withal desiring him, that they would forbear to proceed till they had conferred 
about it." Under date of October 11, 1633, Winthrop writes : " The ministers of the 
Bay and Sagus did meet once a fortnight, at one of their houses by course, where 
some question of moment was debated. Mr. Skelton, the pastor of Salem, and Mr. 
Williams, who was removed from Plymouth thither [but not in any office, though he 
exercised by way of prophesy], took some exception against it, as fearing it might 
grow in time to a presbytery or superintendency, to the prejudice of the churches' 
liberties." Doubtless Williams by this " exception," which subsequent events show 
was not groundless, made himself still further offensive to the churches of the Bay. 
Under dates of December 27, 1633, January 24, 1633, [O. S.], and November 27, 1634, 
Winthrop gives an account of the proceedings of the Governor and Council relative 
to Williams's treatise on the Massachusetts Charter. Under date of February 30, 
1635, Winthrop writes : " The Governor and assistants sent for Mr. Williams. The 
occasion was, for that he had taught publicly, that a magistrate ought not to tender an 
oath to an unregenerate man, for that we thereby have communion with a wicked 
man in the worship of God and cause him to take the name of God in vain. He was 
heard before all the ministers and very clearly confuted." The following appears 
under date of July 8, 1635 : "At the general court, Mr. Williams, of Salem, was sum- 
moned and did appear. It was laid to his charge, that, being under question before 
the magistracy and churches for divers dangerous opinions, viz : 1, that the magistrate 
ought not to punish the breach of the first table, otherwise than in such cases as did 
disturb the civil peace ; 2, that he ought not to tender an oath to an unregenerate 






ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 15 I 



man; 3, that a man ought not to pray with such, though wife, child, etc. ; 4, that a 
man ought not to give thanks after the sacrament nor after meat, etc. ; and that the 
other churches were about to write to the church of Salem to admonish of these 
errors; notwithstanding the church lias since called him to the office of teacher. 
Much debate was about these things. The said opinions were adjudged by all, magis- 
trates and ministers [who were desired to be present], to be erroneous, and very dan- 
gerous, and the calling of him to office, at that time, was judged a great contempt of 
authority. So, in fine, time was given to him and the church of Salem to consider of 
these things till the next General Court, and then either to give satisfaction to the 
court, or else to expect the sentence; it being professedly declared by the ministers 
[at the request of the court to give their advice], that he who should obstinately 
maintain such opinions [whereby a church might run into heresy, apostasy or tyranny 
and yet the civil magistrate could not intermeddle^, were to be removed, and that the 
other churches ought to request the magistrates so to do." This passage very clearly 
shows several things, to wit: 1, that at the meeting of the General Court, July 8, 
1635, Williams and the church were both found guilty, the one of holding the " dan- 
gerous opinions " alleged, and the other of contempt in calling him to office while he 
was under question for them; 2, that their cases were postponed, not for trial, but for 
sentence, unless Williams would retract and the church purge itself by submission; 3, 
that foremost among the "dangerous opinions" laid to the charge of Williams was 
his doctrine of soul-liberty ; and 4, that this doctrine was selected by the clergy for 
special reprobation, and the maintenance of it declared by them to be a good ground 
for banishment. It is evident that the other matters charged were regarded by the 
clergy at least, if not by the magistrates, as matters of minor moment. When Wil- 
liams again appeared before the General Court he had written the letters sent by the 
Salem church to the other churches requesting them to admonish the magistrates and 
deputies. These letters and a letter written by him to his own church to persuade it 
to renounce communion with all the churches of the Bay, were now further set up 
against him, and doubtless at the time greatly increased the animosity of the court. 
Winthrop tells us that Williams justified the letters and maintained all his opinions, 
and that, Hooker being unable to reduce him from any of his errors, he was sentenced. 
The sentence was as follows, to wit : 

" Whereas, Mr. Roger Williams, one of the elders of the church of Salem, hath 
broached and divulged divers new and dangerous opinions against the authority of the 
magistrates; as also writ letters of defamation, both of the magistrates and churches 
here, and that before any conviction, and yet maintaineth the same without any 
retraction; it is therefore ordered that the said Williams shall depart out of this juris- 
diction within six w'eeks now next ensuing; which if he neglect to perform, it shall be 
lawful for the governor and two of the magistrates to send him to some place out of 
this jurisdiction, not to return any more without license from the court." 

It will be observed that the grounds of sentence are here summed up under two 






152 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

heads, to wit : " opinions against the authority of magistrates," and the " letters," the 
letters being treated rather as matter of aggravation than as an independent offence. 
It will also be observed that the language is " divers opinions against the authority of 
magistrates," which, of course, mean6 more than one opinion. But Winthrop men- 
tions onlv two opinions which can be characterized as "opinions against the author- 
ity of magistrates," namely, the opinion in regard to breaches of the first table, and 
the opinion in regard to oaths. Which of these opinions had the greater influence in 
determining the sentence? The answer may not be absolutely certain, but, if we look 
only to Winthrop, I do not think there can be any reasonable doubt. There is noth- 
ing in Winthrop to show that the contemporaries of Williams were ever seriously 
alarmed by his teaching in regard to oaths; whereas we have only to note the opinion 
of the clergy in regard to the doctrine of soul-liberty, as stated by him, to see how 
rooted was there aversion to it, and how relentlessly they were bent upon its extirpa- 
tion. Winthrop, under date of January 11, 1636, after relating the decision to send 
Williams to England, uses the following language, to wit : " The reason was, because 
he had drawn above twenty persons to his opinion, and they were intending to erect a 
plantation about the Narragansett Bay, from whence the infection could easily spread 
into these churches [the people being, many of them, much taken with the apprehen- 
sion of his godliness]." The reader will observe that the word here is " opinion," not 
opinions, thus clearly denoting that there was one opinion with which Williams was so 
identified, that Winthrop could naturally speak of it without further designation as 
" /lis opinion." Of course, the opinion meant must have been his famous doctrine, 
for he held no other opinion which was likely to disseminate itself by " infection," or 
by reason of the enthusiasm of his followers, in the event of his removal to Narra- 
gansett Bay. Certainly, therefore, if Winthrop were our only authority, the conclu- 
sion would be irresistible that the doctrine of soul-liberty was not only among the 
causes, but the principle cause, of the banishment. 

Williams, in " Mr. Cotton's Letter Examined and Answered," says : "After my 
public trial and answers at the General Court, one of the most eminent magistrates, 
whose name and speech may by others be remembered, stood up and spoke : ' Mr. 
Williams,' said he, ' holds forth these four particulars : first, that we have not our land 
by patent from the king, but that the natives are the true owners of it, and that we 
ought to repent of such a receiving it by patent; secondly, that it is not lawful to call 
a wicked person to swear, to pray, as being actions of God's worship ; thirdly, that it 
is not lawful to hear any of the ministers of the Parish Assemblies in England; 
fourthly, that the civil magistrates' power extends only to the bodies and goods, and 
outward state of men. I acknowledge the particulars were rightly summed up.'" 
(Publications of the Narragansett Club, Vol. I, pp. 40, 41.) In his letter to Endicott 
he again enumerates the causes, making them the same. (Pub. Nar. Club, Vol. VI, 
p. 217.) In his letter to Major Mason, he says that Governor Haynes pronounced the 
sentence of banishment. It may therefore be presumed that it was he who recapitu- 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



153 



lated the four particulars. lie tells us that Haynes. afterwards, being in some difference 
with the Bay, made the following memorable confession to him, to wit : " I think, Mr. 
Williams, I must now confess to you, that the most wise God hath provided and cut 
out this part of his world for a refuge and receptacle for all sorts of consciences." 
(Pub. Nar. Club, Vol. VI, pp. 344, 345.) He means, of course, that Haynes thereby 
virtually confessed that he erred when he took part in banishing him for his doctrine 
of soul-liberty. It has been urged that Williams's statement does not show that he 
considered that this doctrine was specially influential in causing his banishment, hut 
rather the contrary, since he mentions it last. Hut he professes to state the cause-, as 
recapitulated by the magistrate. A complainant preferring charges might naturally 
prefer the graver first; but a magistrate passing sentence, if he recapitulates the 
grounds of it, and wishes to be impressive, is likely to reverse the order, using the 
rhetorical figure of the climax rather than the anti-climax. 

It will be remarked that Williams mentions two causes of banishment which are 
not included in Winthrop's specification, to wit: his separatism and his attack on the 
patent. In explanation of this, it has been suggested that perhaps Williams may have 
been tried on all the charges ever lodged against him, whether new or old, and that 
Winthrop only specifies such as were new. The trouble with this explanation is, that 
the charge in regard to oaths was not new, and that Williams had never before been 
summoned to answer to any complaint of his separatism. There is an explanation 
which seems to me more probable. Winthrop probably states the charges on which 
Williams was arraigned, being the charges formally preferred. If the trial had taken 
place before a tribunal accustomed to technical methods, it would have been confined 
to these formal charges. The trial took place before the General Court, which was a 
representative assembly rather than a judicial tribunal. It is difficult for a court com- 
posed of expert lawyers to confine the trial of an exciting case to the record; for a 
popular assembly to do so would be little short of a miracle. The trial of Williams 
before such an assembly would naturally travel out of the record and involve his char- 
acter generally. So far on the supposition that the trial itself actually extended to the 
" four particulars." But, let it be remembered, that, according to Winthrop the trial 
on the charges stated by him was concluded in July, and the case stood continued for 
sentence simply, unless before sentence Williams should "give satisfaction to the 
court." Now it is not uncommon for even the strictest tribunals to allow themselves, 
after the accused has been convicted, a considerable latitude of inquiry into his ante- 
cedents for the purpose of determining the kind of sentence which shall be imposed 
upon him. It may be that the four particulars were mentioned with that view. Or it 
may be that the discussion between Hooker and Williams took a range wider than the 
record, and that Haynes referred to the discussion instead of the trial when he said 
"Mr. Williams holds forth these four particulars." Williams's statement that the 
four particulars were mentioned " after my trial and answers," well accords with this 
supposition. That Winthrop correctly reports the formal charges is further confirmed 
20 



154 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



a6 follows: It was not Williams alone who was put on trial, but Williams jointly 
with the Salem church, which persisted in retaining him as pastor. The Boston 
church undertook to labor with the Salem church for this. Nathaniel Morton, in 
" The New England Memorial," says " there was a public admonition sent in writing 
from the church of Boston to the church of Salem for the reducing of Mr. Williams 
and the erring part of the church." This writing contained a statement of " errors in 
doctrine maintained by some of the brethren of the church of Salem, tending to the 
disturbance of religion and peace in family, church and commonwealth." The state- 
ment recited by Morton is practically the same as Winthrop's, except that it omits 
Winthrop's fourth charge, which is a small matter, concerning decorum rather than 
doctrine, and adds one further allegation of error, to wit: that magistrates ought not 
to take an oath of fidelity from " the body of their subjects though regenerate." It 
mentions neither separatism nor the patent. 

John Cotton is the principal authority for the view that the doctrine of soul- 
liberty had nothing to do with the banishment. Cotton, answering Williams, imputes 
fraud and falsehood to his statement of " particulars," and declares that Williams 
wisely conceals the name of the " eminent magistrate" who summed up the grounds 
of his banishment, lest, if named, " he should be occasioned to bear witness against 
such fraudulent expressions of the particulars." Of course the imputation recoils 
upon its author. Williams, with his ardent temperament, may have sometimes fallen 
into exaggerations, but he was incapable of lying. The imputation betrays a hostile 
and calumnious temper which should be allowed for in considering Cotton's letter as 
authority. It should also be borne in mind that the letter was written ten years after 
the event by a man who meanwhile had had his own perplexities, familistical and 
other, to occupy him, and who, moreover, reproaches Williams for bringing the mat- 
ter up for discussion with him, because he so seldom attends civil courts, having a dis- 
taste for them. Yet he readily engages in the discussion, contradicting Williams and 
giving his own differing account. It is only too natural for men in such circum- 
stances to persuade themselves that they actually remember that things were as, look- 
ing back from their later point of view, they think they must have been. I do not 
think Cotton was above making this mistake. He says, " The two latter causes which 
he [Williams] giveth of his banishment were no causes at all, as he expresseth 
them; " or in other words, that his teaching in regard to separatism and soul-liberty 
were not among the causes of his banishment. In saying that the doctrine of soul- 
liberty was not among the causes, Cotton not only differs from Winthrop, but contra- 
dicts himself, for it was one of the errors noted in the admonition to the Salem church, 
and according to Morton, the admonition was signed by Cotton. Morton, moreover, 
a contemporary of Williams, imbued with the contemporaneous feeling, makes this 
doctrine, and this only, the subject of special comment and condemnation. Cotton 
says that the doctrine could not have been among the causes, because other men, 
known to hold it, were tolerated in both church and State. Evidently he either for- 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 155 



gets or ignores the law enacted in Massachusetts in 1644. This law was as follows, to 
wit: "If any person or persons in the jurisdiction . . shall deny the ordinance of 
magistracy or their lawful right or authority . . to punish the outward breaches of 
the first table and shall appear to the court willfully and obstinately to continue 
therein after due time and means of conviction, every such person or persons shall be 
sentenced to banishment." (Records of Massachusetts, Vol. II, p. 85.) The fact 
that this enactment was in force when Cotton wrote his letter throws a flood of light 
on his candor. It is true the enactment is aimed not against the mere holding of the 
obnoxious opinion, but against the maintenance of it. Possibly Cotton may have 
intended to reserve to himself the benefit of this distinction, but if so, his inexplicit- 
ness is exceedingly disingenuous. Manifestly what Williams means was that he was 
banished for promulgating or maintaining the opinions enumerated. For him, a 
knowledge of the truth imposed the duty of teaching it. He knew that the smothered 
fire goes out, that the belief unuttered perishes in the breast of the believer. His 
feeling in this respect strikingly appears in his letter to John Endicott. Endicott had 
been a member of his church at Salem. He had adopted and publicly confessed the 
doctrine of soul-liberty. He subsequently retrograded and was concerned as governor 
in the shocking prosecution of Clarke, Holmes and Crandall. Williams addressed a 
letter to him on occasion of it, reproaching him with apostolic plainness and power 
for his tergiversation. "I fear," he wrote, "your underprizing of Holy Light hath 
put out the candle and the eye of conscience in these particulars." He was very care- 
ful himself not to put out " the candle and the eye of conscience " by refusing to bear 
witness to the Holy Light which visited him. 

The matter would be of little moment to the fame of Williams, if those who 
maintain that the doctrine of soul-liberty was not one of the causes of his banishment 
did not find it necessary to make compensation by exaggerating the other causes. 
Cotton says that to the best of his observation and remembrance there were only two 
causes; namely, "his [Williams's] violent and tumultuous carriage against the 
patent," and his opposing the oath of fidelity. Now, when or where was he guilty of 
such " violent and tumultuous carriage"? Was it among his little flock of faithful 
parishioners? The language is strong enough to import that he had raised a riot and 
mobbed the police. Probably if there was any justification for such language, it was 
simply this, that, being tormented by clergymen and elders " laboring to reduce him,'' 
he lost patience and expressed himself with an emphasis that startled them. Winthrop 
gives no intimation of any violence or tumult. Williams tells us that his contention 
was that the Massachusetts settlers ought to " repent receiving the land " of the 
natives by patent; Cotton represents that his contention was that they ought to 
repent receiving the patent itself and return it. The statements dilfer materially; 
which is the more likely to be correct? The former is easily perverted into the latter, 
or even misunderstood for it. Everybody knows how frequently such permutations 
occur in oral discussion. Everybody knows how often in such discussions men put 



I56 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



their own words into mouths of their opponents, and then condemn their oppor. 
for them. It was also more common two hundred and fifty vears ago even than it is 
now for controversaiists to draw their own inferences from the doctrines of their 
opponents, and then impute them to their opponents as the doctrines held by them. 
We cannot positively assert that Cotton did this. But we can positively assert that 
the doctrine which Cotton attribu: liams was not contained in the lav 

se on the patent, because Winthrop states the matters in that >.ich gave 

offense and does not mention it. Will it be said that Williams developed the doctrine 
subsequent;-.? Winthrop gives some account of his subsequent teaching. Under 
date of November 27, 1034- he writes : "It -.vis informed us th iiams had 

broken his promise to us in teaching publicly against the King's patent, and our 
great sin in claiming right thereby to this country." He nowhere says that Williams 
taught that the settlers ought to repent receiving the patent and return it. If this 
was his teaching, why does it not appear in the s dangerous opin- 

ions" given by Winthrop? And why was it not included by Cotton himself in his 
admonition to the church at Salem among the " errors tending to disturbance of 
peace in the commonwealth"? If the doctrine was taught by Williams as Cotton 

it was taught, and created the sensation which he says it created, the omission is 
inexplicable. Until these difficulties are removed it to assume that Williams, 

instead of Cotton, has stated his own doctrine correctly. Evidently the proper 
method of making amends to the natives for land taken wit -jent under the 

.: was not to surrender the ;t to pay for the land. Williams perceived 

this : for Winthrop, stating the purport of his treatise, tells us that he " concluded that 
claiming i the King's jrant, they could have no title except they compounded sith 
the n a: :;-::." A surrender of the precisely what the X 

of England and the persecuting prelates of the Church of England wanted, and 
Hams was no fond lover of either king or prelate that he should wish to j .;■ 
either"s hands. There are son tement to a still further con- 

clusion; name iliams maintained that both the patent and the government 

under it were alike void. No conclusion could be more erroneous. His whole course 
of conduct, both while he lived in Massachusetts and aft - shows that he rec- 

ognizes without question the jurisdiction and legitimacy of t. u setts govern- 

ment " in civil things." And so likewise the consequences of his opposing the oath 
of fidelity have been magnified or misremembered. The German poet Goethe, when 
he went to work in his old age to write his autobiography, significantly entitled it 
•■ Truth and Fiction from my Life," because he realized how impossible it was for him 
to recollect the incidents of his life correctly, or to represent them as they happened 
without coloring or modification, since he could not become his earlier self again. It 
would have been well for John Cotton if, when, under a strong bias of polemical pre- 
judice, he undertook, ten years after the event, to give from memoir the reasons • 
Wii anished, he could have anticipated the great German in this thought 

and governed himself according '_-.-. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



157 



;note 3.] 

Giving my fancy rein, I have ventured to suppose that Williams was joined by 
his wife and children in Seekonk; and, if the removal did not take place until June, 
the supposition is not improbable. The common account founded on tradition is that 
he removed with five other men. namely, William Harris, John Smith, miller. Jot.hua 
Verin, Thomas Angell and Francis Wick - s Annals of Providence, p. 20. 

Arnold's History of Rhode Island, p. 40.) Another account is that he was accom- 
panied by Thomas Angell. (Materials for a history of Rhode Island collected by 
Theodore Foster. Coll. of R. I. Hist. Soc, Vol. VII. p. S3. Stone's Life of How-land : 
note, p. 344.) Still another account is that the salutation, " What Cheer.'' was given 
to Williams ar. . . hen they were on an exploring expedition before Williams 

came to the Moshassuck " to settle ivili kit family there." (Coll. of R. I. Hist. S 
Vol. VII, p. S3, note S.) 

[Note 4.] 

I have been asked to reconsider my characterization of the killing of Miantinomi 
as a " wicked murder."' I am aware that different men have come to different conclu- 
sions on this subject, according to their prepossessions and to the authorities which 
they accept. Any thorough treatment of the question would necessitate an explora- 
tion, collation and weighing of or:_ -uch as cannot be undertaken 
here. I have adopted the prevalent Rhode Island view, which is also the view- of the 
learned editor of Winthrop's diary. Mr. James Savage. The reader who is curious 
about the opposite view, can find it ably stated by the '. m L. Stone, author 
of the '• Life of Brandt." in a little book published under the title of •■ Uncas and 
Miantinomoh." Mr. Stone, in my opinion, gives too much credence to uncritical 
authors like Cotton Mather, and too little to Rhode Island wr! . 

[Note s .] 

Roger Williams sailed for England to procure the revocation of Coddington's 
commission in November, 1651. He returned early in the summer of 1654. In a let- 
ter to John Winthrop, Jr., under date of July 12. 1654, he writes: "It pleased the 
Lord to call me for some time, and with some persons, to practice the Hebrew, the 
Greek. Latin, French and Dutch. The Secretary of the Council "Mr. Milton], for 
my Dutch I read him, read me many more languages." This statement is particularly 
interesting, from the fact that Milton, in composing his " Paradise Lost," borrowed 
largely from the ' : Lucifer" a drama by the Dutch poet, Joost van den Vondel. The 
" Lucifer" was published in January. 1654. A recent English book on the subject, 
entitled "Milton and Vondel: A Curiositv of Literature. Bv George Edmund- 



158 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



M. A.," says : "It is at least possible that it was from the lips of Williams himself 
that Milton first heard the rhythmic lines and learnt to appreciate the poetical power 
and fine imagery of Vondel's masterpiece." 

[Note 6.] 

My authority for this statement is that marvellous piece of minute antiquarian 
research, "The Planting and Growth of Providence, by Henry C. Dorr." (Rider's 
Historical Tracts, No. 15, p. 15S.) In 1870, Mr. Rider printed in pamphlet a manu- 
script purporting to give the names of the owners or occupants of buildings in the 
town of Providence, from 1748 to 177 r . The manuscript was found among the papers 
of Kinsley Carpenter, who died in 1S59, at tne a S e °f 9§ jears. The author notes on 
the manuscript that it was penned from memory without patrolling the streets to 
count the buildings, and may contain some errors. It shows that the number of dwell- 
ing houses in 1749 was 143, and in 1771, 309, an increase of 166 in 22 years. It shows 
that in 177 1 , there were 88 barns and 189 storehouses and shops, including four cooper 
shops, six distilleries, two blacksmith shops, two grist mills, two candle works, a tan 
house, a ropewalk, a paper mill, a clothier's shop, a chocolate house, a slaughter 
house and a potash works. Besides these there were 15 so-called public buildings, 
viz. : A college, president's house, court house, jail, work house, four school houses, 
Baptist meeting house, church, Presbyterian meeting house, New Light meeting 
house, Powder house and Friends meeting house. 

The reader will get some idea of the growth of the city in more recent times from 
the two following tables : 



POPULATION 
Of the Town and City of Providence from 170S to 1S85. 



1708 1.446 

i73° 3.9 l6 

1748 3.452 

I75S 3.159 

1774 4.321 

I77 6 4-355 

1782 4.3 10 

1790 6,380 



1800 7.614 

1S10 10,071 

1820 11,767 

1830 16,836 

1840 23,172 

1S50 41,513 

1S60 50,666 

1865 54,595 



1S70 68,904 

i875---- 100,675 

1878 99,682 

1880 .104,852 

1883-... "6,755 

1S84 120,000 

1885 121,000 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



'59 



VALUATION 
Of the City for Taxation from 18.32 to 18S5. 



1832 13,121,200 

1837 •••• 14.516,130 

1840 ■•• 17,195,700 

1845 23,729,100 

1850 31,959,600 

1S55 56,296,297 



i860. 58,131,800 

1S65 80,564,300 

1870 93,076,900 

lS 75 121,954,700 

1S80 115,921,000 



The city was enlarged in 1S6S by the annexation of the ninth ward, and in 1S74 
by the annexation of the tenth ward. 

[Note 7.] 

A good biography of Stephen Hopkins was until recently a desideratum. The 
want has now been supplied, so far as it can be with the materials extant, by Mr. Wil- 
liam E. Foster, the accomplished librarian of the Providence Public Library, in his 
excellent work entitled " Stephen Hopkins : A Rhode Island Statesman. A Study in 
the Political History of the Eighteenth Century," published as Nos. iS and 19 of 
Rider's Historical Tracts. 



[Note 8.] 
Mayor Doyle died after a short illness, June 9, 1886. 



VALEDICTORY ODE. 



Words by Prof. A. William-. Music by Eben A. Kelley. 



Sung by the Avion Club. 



VALEDICTORY ODE. 



Words by Prof. A. Williams. 

Maestoso. 
Soprano. 



Music by E. A. Kici.lt. 



K: 



lirrat 



^ *-j 



e J S 



1 | 1 



Hail, lion- ored name, our sa - cred dead, Thy spir - it great, tri - um - phant, free 



• • 



S 



pS= B=3=£fe J - .j . 1 



Hail, lion- ored name, our sa - cred dead. Thy spir - it great, tri- um- phant, free, 
Tenor. — ~~ZZ: : — _r 



'C 



^cz=P^ 



■ eJ & 



r^ 



^m 



I'- 



ll 



Bass.- 



Hail, hon- ored name, our sa - cred dead. Thy spir - it great, tri- um - phant, free. 



W- 



& & L 



£3?^? 



.1 c 



Hail, hon- ored name, our sa - cred dead. Thy spir - it great, tri- um - phant, free. 



1 

I 




r T 



I 



EE3E 



I J _4. 

«=, mz — *- 



piu mosso. 



?=C 



£= 



iF=^ 



# 



O'er all our land, be - yond the sea. On wings of light lias sped; Speeds 

-=■ ~ piu 7IWSS0. 



sfcrtfifczb 



<s> <s> - 



I 



O'er all our land, be - yond the sea, On wings of light lias sped; Speeds 

pin mosso. 



: f~-fP- 



r~ p — * — *- 



m 



=*=?= 



3^a- 



O'er all our land, be - yond the sea, On wings of light has sped; Speeds 

— piu mosso. 



-* m- 



h 



T ^ r r ? — I < p. 



O'er all our land, be - yond the sea, On wings of light has sped; Speeds) 

piu mosso. 



r M 






ISC 



-s- 



es. 



T 



i 






"52_ 



A > 



-*■ -/S»-' 



^^ 



^m 



*U-^^=- 



i 5 



(24J 



Copyrtght, 1886, by E. A. Krllt. 



VALEDICTORY ODE. 




Ten on Solo. 



VAI.HHK.TOKV OL>K. 



te 



V 



-y — v- 



£§s 



*=g 



^s 



H^i 



In ev-ery age the world is blest By those or-daincd to free th'op-prest 




Chorus. Tenor. 



fcfc 



-+ 1 fa- 



3^ 



£ 



Mm^. 



'&: 



&±z 



A war - lior stern, mag - nan 
Bass. 

&*=, * — 



i - mous, His coun - try's hope to 



E^ I 



=SS=* 



S 



m 



l*c 



6==!=* 



£ 



I 



S 



^^ 



S 



P 



5S=S» 



St 



5 



s 



^^ 



* 



fryr 



3= 



& 



Without Ped- 
Soprano. ^oco a poco stringendo. 



& 



S=5F 



w 



^ 



^^ 



ir*- » — 

ev - ery age the world is blest. In 



Alto. 



In 



ery age the 



* £- 



^ 



J J J-yrWhJ J Eg 



Tenor. 



In ev - ery age the 

poco a poco stringendo. 



world is blest, In 



ev - ery age 



the 



$=i^ 



^E§ 



M 



i?3fc 



save. 
Bass. 



In ev - ery age the 

poco a poco stringendo. 



world 



SE 



m 



3. 



is blest, In ev - ery age the 



m 



.?«. 



In ev - ery age the 
poco a poco stringendo. 



world is blest, In 



ev 



ery age the 



^ 



W~r 



VALEDICTORT ODE. 

poco rilard. ^-^ 



£^ 



t 



i£=rSt 



I 



world is blest, 'Tis God's own arm made man - i - fest, made man - i - fest. 
± IfcZ . ii-i >. » ». «. 'I — is- 



&*£ 



£=£ 



r — ^ «— 



*=** 



L> 



3B=T3t 



5^S 



world is blest, 'Tis God's own arm made man - i - fest, made man 



- fest. 




=f= 



world is blest, 'Tis God's own arm made man 

-b»-» * „ — , r*"* ~£- — ^ — r^*-*- 



lfcfeE^g=E 



i - fest, made man 

sa- 



fest. 



world is blest, 'Tis God's own arm made man - i - fest, made man 



fest. 



m& 



p 



s 



w 



i 



^ 



-*£- 



9fc 



* 



EESfc 



poco ri<. 



r i>r- 



a 



-?T W r^T- 



« J= F == F 



2^1 



^^F-^t 




Male Chorus. 
1st Tenor. 



£=£ = £ 



P 



jwo n/. 



Efe 



£ 



* 



js 



'■ t> 



Thy task di - vine to lift up 
2nd Tenor. 



Truth 



de-throned, Thy - self ma - Iigned, dis - owned, Yet 
p poco rit. 



=fc 



n 



> 



S 



e 



si^ 



Thy task di - vine to lift up 
1st Bass. 



Truth de-throned, Thy - self ma - Iigned, dis - owned, Yet 
P poco rit. ° 



Thy task di - vine to lift up 
2Nd Bass. 



Truth de-throned, Thy - self ma - Iigned, dis - owned, Yet 
p poco rit. ^ 



m 



Efc 



E V U* -»— fr tc 



^ 



Thy task di - vine to lift up Truth de-throned, Thy - self ma - Iigned, dis - owned, Yet 



VAI.KMt mill ODE. 




I 



e-S 



»C I 



like lone mountain peak be-loved of 



g 



' * T" ! [ f 



lof - ticst star, and touched by Heaven's pure ray. 



fefe- :r I' : '!r 



like lone mountain peak be- loved of lof - tiest star, 



W = 9—V 



and touched by Heaven's pure ray 

-<*-rJ*± » 



like lone mountain peak be-loved of lof- tiest star, 



and touched by Heaven's pure ray. 



m 



like lone mountain peak be-loved of lof- tiest star, and touched by Heaven's pure ray. 



sBE 



=^ 



m. - 



?t> 




Thy mind un - yield - ing towers, a bca - con seen from far, 

be- . 






The night is changed to day. 
PP- 



=^ 



=£ 



m 



Thy mind un - yield - ing towers, a bea - con seen from far, 



The night ischangedto 
PP 



^^g 



day. 



^m 



Thy mind un - yield - ing towers, a bea - con seen from far, 






The night ischangedto day. 
PP' 



-V-i 



£ 



:|EE«EE=E^^ 



Thy mind un - yield- ing towers, a bea - con seen from far, The night ischangedto day. 



±$ 



m. 



v 



BE 



7S- 



^3^ 



^5 



S 



t 






pi 



1st Soprano, poco accellerando. 

— — -Qg=g= 



ritard. 



1 



* / 



: *=^ 



The 



^ p= 

night is changed to 
2nd Soprano. 



day. 



is changed to day, changed to day. 



The 



T 



3e£ 



=fc 



^P 



->*-■- 



^K= 



I*!Z=jfc 



Alto. 1 ^ 



i 

1 

I 



The night 
Tenok. 



is changed to 



*=£ 



day. 



is changed to 



day, 



* '" — 
changed to 



f 
day. 



¥=*-- 



Bass. 



The 
/ 

/ 



-*—*»- 



£=^ 



7C 



VALEDICTOET ODE. 



I 



t »— £—* — te 



n?eno ttio^o. 



:£=: 



:F 



3*=tz 



=3=£ : 



5dE 



bonds that bind the souls of men, Are 



rent, 

A 



i. 



*=^= 



ne'er to 
meno mosso. 



be forged a - gain. 



m 



m 



$=^ 



: S? 



J i *- 



* 



bonds that bind the souls of men, Are rent, 



ne'er to be forged a 
meno mosso. 



gain. 



-m- — * m- 



bonds that bind the souls of men, Are rent, 

A 

*- — * — *■ — tih 



- s 



3 * 



? I *' 



£2 



p 



gg=£r 



- s »-*- 



ne'er to be forged a 
meno mosso. 



gain. 



bonds that bind the souls of men. Are rent, 

A A 



ne'er to be forged a - gain. 
TTjeno mosso. _ 




ff Soprano. 



^=f^ 



-* » 



£—i-Z— C- f 



:£=U=tc 



an, ye 



3 



Lift the loud pse 
// Alto. 



J" 



bi-lant peo 



pie, 



*=Jt 



^3 



The soul is re - leas - ed from 

j* — ft r * 



i 



Lift the loud pa- - an, 
//Tenok. 



ye 



J«i 



bi-lant peo - pie, The soul is re - leas - ed from 



b •- 



' 



5^ 



Lift the loud pie 
//Bass 

; — »-■ - 



an, ye ju - bi-lant 



peo 



pie, The soul is re - leas - ed from 



— ■— 0-* — — — m — i — ^- J — f- — w- F- 



Lift the loud pge - an, 



leas - ed from 



VALEDII TORT <)1>F.. 




i 



s 



bells in the stee - pie, Pro 



ty - ran - ny's chains 



Join 



in the cho - rus, ye 



: 



bells in the stee - pie, Pro - 



ty - ran - ny's chains; 
P ' f — * «^— 



Join 



in the cho - rus, yo 



■*=&. 



m 



bells in the stee - pie, Pro 






ty - ran • ny's chains; 



Join in the cho - rus, yo 

L — 



bells in the stee - pie, Pro 




claim - nig a - far 'hat our God ev - er reigns. In glad em - u - la - tion, tho 



te 



claim - iny 



far that our God 






- er reigns. In glad em - u - ta - tion, the 

-*- • f == -f- m —hf- jL —f t — * r * — F^^ 



claim - ing a - far that our Qod ev - er reigns. In glad em - u 






la - tion, In 



& =1 — * — g — £ >— U U = tp» — 



claim - ing a 



far that our God ev - er reigns. In glad em - u 





tions of 



earth Now march to the light 
fa q _fa ft - j fc 



5 



that her - aids new 



p m -* i_- 



march to the light 



that her - aids new birth, Now 



- P— k 1= 



:jt» : 



glad 



% 



la-tion, the na - tions of earth Now march to the 



light, Now 



na - tions of earth, In 



jlad em - u - la - tion the na - tions of earth Now 
4- 



i.- 



-&Z- 



^ 






U -J" 



w 



isl 



poco rit. 






=i*= 



VALEDICTORY ODE. 

a tempo. <fr 



: s5— * 



*-. — 



is 



march to the light that her - aids new birth. Hail, proph - et un - daunt - ed, Blest 
poco rit. a tempo. 



3 



=£ 



^ 




march to the light that her - aids new birth. Hail, proph - et un - daunt - ed, Blest 
poco rit. a tempo. 



m 



4fc= 



E 



march to the light that her - aids new birth. Hail, proph - et un - daunt - ed, Blest 

poco rit. a tempo. 
&£" -f ■!»■— g- f- Urn •__*-. m — m— 



E^§E 



si 



m 



m 



*= 



march to the light 

poco rit. 



— 8i*-r- 

nc^ 



^ 



that her - aids new birth. Hail, proph - et un - daunt - ed, Blest 
^ a tempo. 



± 



:£ 



L -*$0 



~-$fr 



J£g " t - P-- 






§g *- « 



-T^fT 



* 



* 



^ 



r~ 



=5 



r 



^»- 



i 



£: 



6*= 



^"fe 1 







iS 



S 



£_k— U— k=k 



or- a - cle, hail, Souls bat - tling for right will ev - er per-vail; All down thro' the a - ges, as 



g^^^^^^^^l 



s 



-S5 — **»" 



or - a - cle, hail, Souls bat - tling for right will ev - er pre-vail; All down thro' the a - ges, as 



»-T— 



*=&^=SF 



or - a - cle, hail, Souls bat - tling for right will ev - er pre-vail; 
* ■ - 



eSeeeS 



£=k=f= 



^— W- 



fegEESEEfcSEEi=l 



All down thro' the a - ges, as 



3^£=£ 



or- a - cle, hail, Souls bat - tling for right will ev - er pre-vail; All down thro' t he a - ges, as 



-i — -*-r- 



x 



«S=E 



==2 



w 



'V0- 



T=° 



r 



5fe 



*t 



^ 



3=*: 



•Jr 



=t 



$S^ 



f= 



"»»->■ 



?-*-• !?■*■• 





r-> 






— ™ — 







■>. 




> U m , * » * 


• 


• . 


1* 





■5 1 


0'*' 


A 









€y— S — £ — &— 


~^ £- 






— 1> — 


y 




— \- 







n truth shall un - fold, 


Thy 


tri - als 


and 


&■ 1^ 1* 

tri - umphs in 


song 


shall 


be 


told, 







0, 




— *^ 




7 S m ■ » * <• 


• 


i* • * 


« 





I* . 


m 


£? 




" 




<t-Y— £ £— £ F- 


U "? J fe- 


-ir- 


-& — b — E- 




— P- 


— (-1- 




J- — 




A truth shall un - fold, 


Thy 


tri - als 


and 


tri - umphs in 


song 


shall 


be 


told. 


o 
















is 




itkb *-* *- <* 1*— 


■ 


1*' g 


-f- 


— * -0 i»— 


\=£^ 


—# 


-0— 




-r : 




^}i — k -!tf — k 1 — 

truth shall un - fold, 

I* - * "f" "f" "f" 


Thy 

T7 


— k -£- 

tri - als 

"f"' 1*" 


— k_ 

and 

1^ 


— U — k — k— 

tri -umphs in 

"f" 1*" t*" 


k— 

song 
■#■" 


is 

shall 


V— 

be 

■f- 


Wd. 


o 




/«v L h« L 




Li k 


L 


Lj L Li 


Li 


u. 




1 


• 




[(•;. V & W \ w 


1/ P 




r w W 






^-'h 
















truth shall un - fold, 


Thy 


tri - als 


and 


tri - umphs in 


song 

— N | 


shall 


be 


told. 


3 




n v K 




x r 




/■ 


y 




J 


/ 


X 4 * c*i li 


c3 


•( " 








■ 


1 


•*.[? « *-H n^ . 


« n 




1 


v- J L» . » ' 






S4t • 


.. bfl ■ 






m 






^ r- r^ 




^" 




1 








s 






/»V i* • « 


1 


• 


I 


& £= — ^ — 


'4 ' 




r 


SI 






r !•■ 




W-. 




-J-. 


t 






r 


' 





VAI.KDICTOUV ODE. 



i 



^ ^ e^eeE 



esese 



f» 



home of soul - free - dom, pro - long the ae - claim. Cease nev - er to sing of thy 



^^E^^^eS^EE 



fc= 



^ 



home of soul - free - dom, pro - long the ac - claim, Cease nev - er to 



S^E 



t 



m 



home of soul - free - dom, pro - long 



-*-f-i#-»__- WZ-A ^ 



sing of 
o 



I 



the ac - claim, Cease nev - er to sing of 



rgjjyp^ |||EgEEgESEEJE 



a 

&■ 

thy 

i ! 

thy 



home 



of soul - free - dom, pro - long the ac - claim. Cease nev - er to sing of thy 



5^^P 



!. 



E^^EEE^ 



* 



$Z&1 



o . 



-*» 



S3 



^^EE^EE^ ^^^ 



* 

EE 



-^ 



^ 



? 



f= -4 = 

Repeal from Organ Interlude to sign <J>, then go to Coda. 



I 



tJ 



VI 



guar - di - an name, Cease nev - er to sing of thy guar - di - an name. 




guar - di - an name, Cease nev - er to sing of thy guar - di - an name 



EE 



S=S 



SeeeeeB 



guar 



di - an name, Cease nev - er to sing of thy guar - di - an name. 





Now march to the light. 



'. Now march to the light, . . . Now march to the lightthat heralds new birth. 



Now march tothelight 

ff-fri-E-J t =fi 



. Now march to the light, . . ■ Now march to the light that heralds new birth. 




g^Fgg^g^l 



Now march to the light, 

; T0 • ■ 0— 0-^j0-^ 



. Nowmarch tothelight, . 



. Now march to the light that heralds new birth. 



■^0 ,0 ■ g -tT^-Jg: 
:E£fcK=BEEl 



*E5££ 



*=x 



I 



Now march to thelight, 



Nowmarch tothelight, 



iN 






. . . Nowmarchtothelightthatheraldsnewbirth 



Full Ob6an.^/" 

Ill§§ 



J. 



e 



motto rit. 



IjPfPP 



f ; 






r<. 




DOXOLOGV. 



Sung by the Avion Club, the Congregation Joining. 



DOXOLOGV. 



Praise God from whom all blessings flow. 
Praise Him all creatures here below ; 
Praise Him above ye heavenly howl ; 
Praise Father. Son and Holy Ghost. 



BENEDICTION. 



By the Rev. David H. Greer, D. D. 

2.3 



Benediction by the Rev. David H. Gkeer. 



And now unto the King Eternal, immortal, invisible, the only 
wise God, be the glory and the honor forever, and may the peace of 
God, which passeth all understanding, keep our hearts and minds in 
the knowledge and love of God and of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord, 
and may the blessing of God Almighty, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, 
be upon us and remain with us always. 



EXERCISES OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



AT 



ROGER WILLIAMS PARK, 
June 23, 1886. 



PUBLIC SCHOOL EXERCISES. 



After the historical exercises at the First Baptist Church, 
the observance of the day was further continued at Roger Wil- 
liams Park by the graduating exercises of the scholars of the 
High and Grammar schools. The pupils assembled at the 
park and marched to the tents erected for them, in the follow- 
ing order: 

Chief Marshal : 
General Elisha H. Rhodes. 

Assistant Marshals : 

Fred. M. Rhodes, Herbert W. Rice, George H. Webb, Harry O. 

Potter, Joseph W. Chase. 

Pupils of the High School. 
Warren L. Turner, Aid. 

Pupils of the Doyle Avenue Grammar School. 
William C. Wilson, Aid. 

Pupils of the Thayer Street Grammar School. 
Leslie Ballon, Aid. 

Pupils of the Federal Street Grammar School. 
Edward S. Bucklin, Aid. 



184 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

Pupils of the Point Street Grammar School. 
Edward Joyce, Aid. 

Pupils of the Bridgham Street Grammar School. 
Thomas Livingstone, Aid. 

Pupils of the Oxford Street Grammar School. 
Henry M. Sanger, Aid. 

Pupils of the Elmwood Grammar School. 
J. Horatio Buffum, Aid. 

Pupils of the Candace Street Grammar School. 
Pupils of the Mount Pleasant Grammar School. 
Pupils of the Manton Avenue Grammar School. 

When the scholars were seated, the exercises were opened 
with music by the American Band. 

Mr. Horace S. Tarbell, Superintendent of Public Schools, 
the presiding officer, announced that in the absence of Rev. 
Daniel Leach, D. D., formerly Superintendent of Public 
Schools, Rev. Henry W. Rugg would make the opening 
prayer. 

The Prayer. 

Almighty and ever blessed God, creator and protector of men ! 
With reverent and grateful hearts we call upon Thy name and invoke 
Thy presence. We rejoice in Thee. Thou art our strength and our 
help, our joy and our salvation ; and we realize that without Thy help 
and Thy direction all our efforts are in vain. We thank Thee for that 
measure of Thy favor which has attended us in the past, that Thou 
wast the God of our fathers and didst give wisdom and grace in the 
establishment of this State and of this nation. We would remember 
here and now, on this anniversary occasion, that other men have 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 85 

labored, and we have entered into their labors. We thank Thee for 
the great founder of this city and State, and for that contribution 
which he was able to make to the civilization and prosperity of our 
common country. We bless Thee for those who were associated with 
him in planting the institutions of religion and of good government 
here. And now, oh Father, thinking of what the past brings to us 
of inspiration and of gladness, we come to the celebration of this glad 
occasion in Thy fear, and in the spirit of humility and yet of thank- 
fulness ; we praise Thee for all Thy mercies; we would ask Thy bene- 
diction to rest upon us all, that the services of this hour may be to 
Thine honor and glory and to our common and individual benefit. We 
ask Thy blessing to rest upon our city and State, and especially upon 
the schools here represented. Oh, God, the High and Mighty Ruler 
of the Universe, wilt Thou indeed give grace and wisdom, and purity, 
and strength to those who are called to the conduct of our public 
affairs in our own State, and throughout the land. And be Thou with 
those who teach, whether in the school-room, in the pulpit, on the 
platform or by the press, and grant that whatever they do may be done 
to the advancement of the best interests of the commonwealth and for 
Thy glory. Be thou with these young people, the youth of our public 
schools. May they remember their Creator in the days of their youth ; 
and be, likewise, with those who have their guidance ; and grant that 
they may instruct them in spiritual things, as well as those that belong 
to intellectual education ; and so may our city and State be advanced in 
all that pertains to a better civilization. May joy fill our hearts to-day; 
and may the knowledge of Thee, our God, cover the earth as the 
waters cover the sea. We ask these things in the name of our risen 
Lord and Saviour. Amen. 

After singing "Auld Lang Syne" by the scholars, Super- 
intendent Tarbell introduced the Rev. J. G. Vose, D. D., who 
delivered the following address : 

24 



1 86 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



Rev. Mr. Vose's Address. 

Mr. President, Friends and Pupils of the Public Schools : 
It has been thought wise by those who have taken the charge of 
this important anniversary that a special place should be assigned to our 
public schools. As it was not possible to gather so great an assembly 
in any hall in the city, it was natural that our steps should have 
been directed hither to this beautiful park, named for the illustrious 
founder of the State, and given by one of his descendants as a perpet- 
ual memorial. Whatever disappointment any of you may have felt in 
the loss of the more private exercises attending our school exhibitions 
will probably be relieved by the thought that you thus have a week's 
longer vacation. No doubt our young friends will appreciate the 
wisdom of the great Apostle of Freedom in removing to the west 
bank of the Seekonk in the leafy month of June, rather than in defer- 
ring his arrival till July. I count it a great honor and privilege that it 
has fallen to my lot to address the youth of our public schools, who of 
all the people of this city will longest remember this celebration, and 
on whom, if there be any influence for good arising from it, that influ- 
ence will be the deepest and most abiding. 

It is not my purpose, however, to magnify the honorable office 
assigned to me by making a long address or by attempting to give a 
detailed history of our public schools, but there are a few points in 
that history which ought to be fastened in the minds of our people, and 
which may lead the young to a deeper interest in the cause of education. 
In these two hundred and fifty years, since the first greeting in the 
English tongue was given and returned on the banks of the Seekonk, 
nothing has transpired more important to the true welfare of the State 
than the successive events which have created and developed our pub- 
lic schools. In accordance with the spirit of independence that pre- 
vailed from the beginning, we are not surprised to find that for a 
century and a half education depended more upon private than com- 
bined effort. And yet the town records are by no means wanting in 
evidences of a sense of responsibility in this matter. Newport in 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 87 



1640, Providence in 1663, each set apart one hundred acres of land for 
the support of schools. Yet we must come down more than a hun- 
dred years later before we find much general interest taken in the sub- 
ject. Even then the popular voice was neither strong nor united. 
The founding of Brown University, the third institution of the rank 
of a college in New England, and preceded by only three or four 
others throughout the whole extent of our land, gave an impulse in 
many minds to the desire for free education among all classes of the 
people. Accordingly, we find about this very time new efforts put forth, 
which though not wholly successful at first, were in the line of that 
progressive enterprise which never fails of final victory. In 1767 a 
report was presented, recommending the building of four school-houses 
with the design, as the report expressly states, " That every inhabitant 
of this town shall have and enjoy an equal right and privilege of send- 
ing their own children, and the children of others that may be under 
their care, for instruction and bringing up to any or all of the said 
schools." These large designs of generous men were not carried into 
effect, and education still struggled on with meagre support and encour- 
agement till the dawn of a new century. Yet many minds were deeply 
interested, and to no combined agency was the cause of education in 
Providence more deeply indebted than the Mechanics Association, and 
to no one man more than to John Howland, who was one of its ear- 
liest and most efficient members. In an address delivered before that 
society in 1799, Mr. Howland uttered these remarkable words : "Most 
of us who are at present members of this Association have had but 
few advantages of education, but it will be our fault, as well as the 
fault of our fellow citizens, if the next generation is not better taught. 
Let it be said in all private companies, let it be asserted in all public- 
bodies, let it be declared in all places till it has grown into a proverb, 
that it is the duty of the Legislature to establish free schools through- 
out the State." These golden words produced a powerful effect, not 
only on those who heard them, but on the community at large. In the 
same year the General Assembly passed a bill providing for free 
schools, which, although soon repealed, was productive of permanent 



1 88 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

benefit. This city has sustained public schools since the year 1800, 
and during the whole lifetime of John Howland, lengthened out to the 
advanced age of ninety-seven years, he was the consistent friend and 
promoter of free education. I call upon the youth of this city to 
cherish the memory of this remarkable man, a barber by trade, having 
no advantages of wealth or early instruction, who joined his influence 
with the greatest and most learned men of this commonwealth — 
should I not say, whose influence preceded and gave energy to theirs 
in the founding of the public schools. 

In the first school committee ever elected in this city were found 
the President of the college, Dr. Maxey, Governor William Jones and 
other eminent men associated with John Howland, to whom they all 
looked as the leader in this great enterprise. When the first rules 
were adopted the burden of the labor was assigned to hini. Again I 
say, let us cherish the memory of this good man, and let his career and 
influence be ever held up by all who love our public schools, as an 
illustration of the truth that " Honor and shame from no condition 
rise." Men who have begun in the humblest trades have often fulfilled 
the greatest and best of public services. The largest philanthropy, 
and the most generous views of human progress, have often sprung 
from the hearts and minds of those who in early life have struggled 
with adverse fortune. 

In the year 1800 four schools were established in Providence, only 
one of them on this side of the bridge. In 18 12 this district was 
divided, and the whole number of schools increased to five. The num- 
ber of pupils during this period was about eight hundred, and did not 
reach one thousand until the year 1828. The provision of earlier days 
was entirely inadequate. 

Now begins a new era, led by that truly great man, who in later 
years was often called the first citizen of Rhode Island, Dr. Francis 
Wayland. It is noteworthy that his interest in public schools began 
with his earliest connection with the college. His report, published in 
1828, brought in a new order of things. Hitherto there had been no 
graded school system, no primary schools, and no provision at all for 



ANNIVERSARY OK PROVIDENCE. 189 



the education of the colored people. More than all, and what seems 
strange to us at this time, there were no women employed as teachers. 
How the children of Providence ever grew up without the kindly influ- 
ence of women in the schools is a problem we find hard to solve. 
Doubtless the children found it hard enough, and we may be the less 
sorrowful that the number of pupils was at that time so small, and that 
the younger children were to a great extent taught at home. 

In 1835 an effort was made to establish a High School, which the 
city council voted to be not expedient. Again, the Providence Asso- 
ciation of Mechanics and Manufacturers came to the front, as they had 
nobly done a generation before. They showed that the number of 
children out of school was greater than that of those in attendance, 
and that the means then afforded were wholly inadequate. Only after 
repeated efforts and memorials was the plan of a High School carried 
into successful operation and provision made for larger instruction in 
the other departments. I shall not recount the struggles through 
which this liberty was gained. Many names deserve remembrance, 
and will often be recalled by those who, in future, shall rehearse the 
triumphs of education in our State. Not only Dr. Wayland, but all 
the Faculty of Brown University, were zealous in their efforts to pro- 
mote the welfare of public schools. Our city has been very fortunate 
in its superintendents, of whom the first, Mr. Nathan Bishop, became 
principal of the High School, and occupied that position for several 
years. 

Any mention of our history would be incomplete without alluding 
to the services of Dr. Henry Barnard, who spent six years in active 
labor in this State, from 1843 to 1849. It is hardly amiss to say that 
these years were the best of his life. Probably no man in America 
has ever done more for the cause of general education. At the time of 
his coming into this State a very low estimate of the value of knowl- 
edge prevailed in many places. To compel a citizen to pay taxes in 
support of schools was by some persons regarded as an interference 
with the rights of conscience. A thorough reformation of public opin- 
ion was required. Although the condition of things was better here 



I9O TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

than in most parts of the State, yet city and country are so closely 
linked that the sentiments of each are affected by the other. Mr. 
Barnard accomplished a work for which Rhode Island can never be 
sufficiently grateful. By his judgment, patience and hearty enthusiasm 
he raised the whole mental and moral tone of the State to a higher 
level. In twenty-nine out of thirty-two towns in the State, libraries 
were established by his efforts, containing each not less than five hun- 
dred volumes. These were his objects expressed in his own eloquent 
words : " Let no Rhode Islander forget the immense fund of talent 
which has slumbered in unconsciousness, by reason of the defective 
provision for general education. Let the last four years be the first of 
a new era — an era in which education, the complete and thorough 
education, of every child living in the State, shall be realized. Let the 
problem be solved — how much waste by vice and crime can be pre- 
vented, how far happy homes can be multiplied by the right cultivation 
of the moral nature — how much better the hand can work when 
directed by an intelligent mind — in fine, how a State of 150,000 peo- 
ple can be made equal to a State of ten times that number — can be 
made truly an Empire State, ruling by the supremacy of mind and the 
moral sentiments. All this can be accomplished by filling the State 
with educated mothers, well qualified teachers and good books, and 
bringing these mighty agencies to bear directly, and under the most 
favorable circumstances, upon every child and every adult." 

Remember that the coming of Henry Barnard was at the very 
time of the opening of our High School. The thrill of his magnetic 
influence was felt throughout the State, and culminated here in the 
rapid improvement of all branches of education in this city. The time 
would fail me to recite the steps of progress which have been made 
since that day, or to do honor to all the noble men who have been effi- 
cient in this work. The relation of our public and private schools 
has always been pleasant, and many of our teachers have been success- 
ful in both. The University has often called for teachers from those 
who have taught in the public schools, and in later years from those 
who have been trained in them as pupils. Thus the higher and the 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 91 

earlier education have been linked in the closest bonds. From the 
opening of the High School, a great increase was apparent in the num- 
ber of pupils in the lower grades. A new attention was attracted to 
the condition of all the schools. Better buildings were demanded. 
Sanitary measures began to be considered. Music was introduced as a 
department of teaching and a means of recreation. There was a great 
softening of manners and improvement of the relations between teacher 
and pupil. The former was no longer regarded as the natural enemy 
of the latter ; and the harsh sound of the birch and the ferule gave 
way to another kind of music more salutary to mind and heart. The 
improvement of manners was noted and commented on, and the polite- 
ness of educated youth was seen to be an especial advantage arising 
from the advancement of the schools. 

While these general results have been reached through a long- 
period of varying progress, the great improvement in school architec- 
ture in this city has been made within less than twenty-five years. Pre- 
vious to that time most of the buildings were poor and overcrowded. 
Much opposition was met in the attempt to provide for our increasing 
population and meet the demands of the times. Hitherto the rate of 
expenditure had been very small. It needed a bold hand and a large 
and generous heart to feel these wants and provide for their supply. 
Our city has never been wanting in men of noble character and high 
standing who have exerted their powerful influence in behalf of schools. 
While we are indebted to many among the living, we recall to-day the 
name of the Honorable John Kingsbury, whose services are often 
alluded to in the earlier records, and those of the lamented Professors 
Greene and Chace and Diman, who turned aside willingly from their 
profoundest studies to promote the interests of the schools in every 
grade. 

But we are especially reminded to-day of him who has stood at the 
head of our city government for a score of years, whose great execu- 
tive abilities, whose spirit of enterprise and liberality are seen in every 
one of the beautiful structures provided for our public schools within 
this period. With energy and foresight that often were accused of 



192 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

rashness, he entered upon the work of supplying better facilities for 
our schools. He had regard both to the adornment of the city and the 
comfort of teachers and pupils. He was a true friend of both. His 
voice has been heard at the dedication of almost every building which 
has afforded means of education in any department. The debt of 
gratitude and of affectionate remembrance, which is felt among parents 
and teachers and pupils to our late Mayor, is a sincerer tribute than 
words can express. Strange indeed it is that his voice should not be 
heard on this occasion. Strange that his familiar form should not be 
seen directing all the services in which he would have taken so deep 
and genial an interest. Let it be ours, so far as we are able, to carry 
out his wishes, and with the same enterprise and generous foresight to 
provide for the generations that are to come after us. 

With the lapse of time it has become more and more evident that 
the different grades of our schools are in true harmony with one another. 
The interest of one is the interest of all. Since the High School 
was established, the improvement of all the schools has been marked 
and rapid. Better buildings have been provided for all the grades. 
The kindergarten system is proving a blessing to those too young to 
enter the primary schools. The whole army is moving on in sympathy 
from the lowest ranks to the highest. New edifices ought to be built 
for our increasing wants, and that little children might not have far to 
go, nor be too closely crowded together. The time is coming when 
our beautiful High School will not be sufficient for all its departments, 
but some new advance must be made with our rapid growth. Always 
the word is " Onward." The prosperity of the city cannot be main- 
tained without improvement in education. The youth of our schools 
who have shared these advantages, and seen the benefits that have 
come from generous enterprise in the past, must be their champions 
and defenders in the days that are to come, and see to it that noth- 
ing is withheld that can promote their progress. 

" New occasions teach new duties ; 

Time makes ancient good uncouth: 
They must upward still and onward, 
Who would keep abreast of truth."' 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 93 



Pupils of the City Schools : — Having thus called your atten- 
tion to some landmarks here and there of our earlier history, let me 
impress upon you two or three lessons derived from it. First of all, 
the value of character. We have seen it in the men who have founded 
these schools and been their constant friends. Nothing that you can 
learn in science or literature is so important. It is far better under- 
stood now than in former years, that character is stronger than all 
things else. The need of moral instruction in our schools is more 
plainly seen. Temperance, purity, integrity — these are the founda- 
tions on which knowledge can safely build. There was a time when 
people were so afraid of the rights of conscience that they thought 
education itself was an interference. But now there is a loud call for 
moral teaching. Our moral teaching, as President Eliot, of Harvard 
College, has boldly proclaimed, must rest on a basis of religion. Our 
schools are free from all sectarianism and from all narrowness. But 
the love of God and man are to be taught in them. We believe, as 
has been well said, in religious liberty, "but not in irreligious liberty," 
for no liberty is possible that is not based on reverence and belief in 
spiritual and moral truth. Our schools have maintained a high stand- 
ard of virtue and piety. Of two hundred boys who have gone out 
from the High School, a careful investigation has not been able to find 
a dozen who have fallen into disgrace by crime or ruined themselves by 
strong drink, while many have become prosperous and distinguished. 
The record of character has been remarkably pure and unblemished. 

From such material, patriotism derives its strength. The record 
of our schools in the war is a proud one. One of your own graduates 
has gathered up the names into a wreath of unfading honor to show 
that such training as you have had in the schools of this city is, to use 
the language of Burke, " The cheap defence of nations, the nurse of 
manly sentiment and heroic enterprise." From the High School alone 
went two hundred and thirty-one, most of them entering in the ranks, 
and many of them rising to the highest stations by their own merit. 
Every class in the High School, from 1843 to 1863, was represented. 
About one-fifth of all the boys served in the army or navy, and not 
25 



194 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

less than twenty-five per cent, of the classes that entered after 1850. 
Neither shall the boys have all the credit, for the enthusiasm of women 
in the defence of the Union, their high moral sense, their generous 
charity and lavish gifts for the Sanitary Commission, secured the vic- 
tory which but for our educated women would never have been won. 
Members of the schools of Rhode Island, never forget at what price 
our liberty was bought ; never forget the noble youth who laid clown 
their lives for us ; and when tempted to dishonor or to selfish gain or 
political meanness of any sort, remember that you have the character 
of the schools to maintain, a record of honor and integrity which must 
not be stained. 

Another lesson is the value of industry. If our schools teach 
anything, they ought to teach the worth of honest work. It is not so 
much what you learn, it is not so much the facts of science or of geog- 
raphy that are to aid you, as the power of application, the willingness 
to toil steadily and conscientiously. It has been objected to our 
schools that they make children unwilling to work. I deny it. The 
objection was brought up fifty years ago, before our schools were fairly 
graded. It is not true — there are no harder working people in the 
community than those who have gone forth from our schools. They 
have not gone into any one line of work ; they are found in all depart- 
ments. As long ago as 1824, John Howland writes: " The pupils of 
the free schools are found among our most active and valuable citizens, 
merchants, mechanics, manufacturers and masters of ships, who were 
poor boys, without the means of instruction." A careful examination 
recently made shows that the High School has fed all the departments 
of industry, not the so-called learned professions chiefly, but every 
province of mechanical and industrial work. Young men and women, 
if you have learned anything here, it is the value of labor. The cun- 
ning hand and cultured brain belong together. I hope that better 
facilities will be given in the schools for every kind of handicraft. 
The brain cannot be best trained without eye and ear and hand. 
Despise no labor in the house, or the shop or the field. It is said that 
these are hard times to get employment. But the attentive mind and 



ANNIVERSARY OF I'ROVIDENCE. 1 95 



ready hand can always find something to do. Learn to work as God 
shall give you work, and you will gain life's best prize. The reward of 
good work is to have more and better work to do. No one can fail of 
success in this free land, with the education and advantages that you 
have had, if he is not ashamed to work. 

And finally, learn the lesson which our country needs at this day 
more than ever — the lesson of brotherhood. We are one people, 
though gathered from almost every quarter of the globe. You meet 
together in the public schools from all the homes in the city. You sit 
side by side with those of different conditions and advantages. The 
poor man's child often goes to the front in scholarship, as in manly 
strength and virtue. Our teachers know no distinction but that of 
true worth. Youth are too generous to admire anything but real worth. 
Who has the strong arm, who has the clear head and the warm heart ? 
These are the questions here, and the things that win love and applause. 
Remember it all your lives. Let honest work be more to you, wherever 
you are, than wealth or fashion. 

" What tho' on hamety fare we dine, 
Wear hoddin' gray and 'a that, 
Gie fools their silks and knaves their wine; 
A man's a man for 'a that." 

Remember that these schools are the pride of the people, and the 
whole people. Rich men have been friendly to them, learned men 
have helped them, but their chief support has come from those in 
common life. The Mechanics Association, with John Howland at its 
head, gave our public schools at critical times the impulse that has 
quickened them into life and prosperity. The Mechanics Association 
joined with the University to aid free education in every step of its 
progress. Remember this in time to come. The troubles that have 
arisen between workmen and employers are to be settled by the 
generous spirit of brotherhood nursed in our public schools. The 
rights of man are to be sought under law and industry united for the 



I96 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

defence of each man in his right, and the overthrow of oppression and 
violence. To study these grand questions and to solve them in the 
true spirit of brotherhood is that for which you are girded in these 
schools. Cherish the love of humanity in the largest sense. Consider 
it your mission in life to advance the condition of the people, and the 
whole people, in virtue, wisdom, purity and all that constitutes true 
happiness. Then will you prove yourselves worthy of the advantages 
here enjoyed, and illustrate the inspiring lines of the gentle and devout 
Whittier : 

" The riches of the Commonwealth 

Are free, strong minds, and hearts of health ; 
And more to her than gold or grain. 
The cunning hand and cultured brain. 



" She need not fear the sceptic's hands 

While near her school the church-spire stands, 

Nor dread the blinded bigot's rule 

While near the church-spire stands the school.' 



After the hymn, "A Mighty Fortress is our God," 
Honorable Nicholas Van Slyck, Chairman of the School 
Committee, spoke substantially as follows : 

Remarks by Honorable Nicholas Van Slyck. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Pupils of the High and Grammar 
Schools : — The best thing that I can promise you in the opening is, 
that I shall take but little of your time. These gentlemen upon the 
platform laugh because you cheer, not knowing as well as I, how much 
you appreciate brevity in a speech. It has been thought that at this 
time, when we are looking back for the purpose of comparing the past 
with to-day — taking an account of what has transpired in the many 
years since the settlement of our beautiful State, that the public schools 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 97 

of Providence should be a feature in the celebration of our two hun- 
dred and fiftieth anniversary. This conclusion gave rise to a considei 
able discussion as to what would be the best way for the schools to 
participate in the celebration, and finally it was considered not inappro- 
priate that a portion of them at least should be brought to this place, 
which, as has been said by him who has so ably addressed you, is a 
place named in honor of Roger Williams and a gift of one (if his 
descendants. While it was thought desirable that all of our schools 
should be present, that was found impossible, and when I announce as 
a fact that, notwithstanding this mass of faces into which we are look- 
ing, only about one-seventh of all the scholars in our public schools 
are assembled, and that if all were present, seven times the space now 
occupied by these scholars would be required for their accommodation. 
This gives us a true picture of what the schools of Providence have 
grown to be. 

The Rev. Dr. Vose has told us, and it has been said also in 
another place to-day, that the first effort in the interest of free schools 
commenced in 1800, but it is also true that the interest in the educa- 
tion of our youth did not begin in 1800, but within four years after the 
settlement of Rhode Island by Roger Williams, our sister city of New- 
port made provision for the education of their children, in the gift of 
one hundred acres of land to the teacher and four acres of land to the 
school, and the use of another hundred acres of land to the teacher so 
long as he should teach. It is also true that in Providence in 1663 pro- 
vision was made for the education of the children of that day by the 
dedication of a hundred acres of land to that purpose. From that time 
— and I will not repeat it, for the story has been so well told to you — 
from that time there has been a continual interest in the education of 
children, followed by the establishment of public schools in our city. 
There is one matter that strikes me at this time in reference to our 
public schools that has escaped attention, and I think it is almost the 
only thing that escaped the attention of Dr. Vose ; and what I would 
say is only an amplification of what he has alluded to, that there is an 
education going on in our public schools beyond what is acquired from 



I98 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

books, or from the teacher. There is an education particularly appro- 
priate to our country and our State, for here we know no difference as 
to the right of any pupil to attend our schools. We recognize the 
equality of all ; and that upon all rests the burden of government. 
Our public schools give the world the great lesson that should charac- 
terize the people of our land. It is the equality that should exist 
everywhere, that the rich and the poor should meet, and do here meet, 
upon perfect equality, and the scholar of the schools comes to learn 
that he is no better than his fellow, except as he shall conduct himself 
better than his fellow. 

I sometimes hear it said, and you perhaps have heard the same 
statement made, that children of some people are made of that kind of 
clay that it will not do for them to attend the public schools wherein 
the children of all classes of society attend. I have no patience 
or sympathy with any such sentiment. The lesson should be 
taught, and the lesson is taught, and many of these when they 
attend the public schools find themselves taught the lesson that in 
these schools they are no better and no worse than those with whom 
they associate. I have no controversy with the private schools. They 
have a purpose to serve, and a commendable one ; but we should have 
it understood that there are no better men or scholars made under 
such instruction than in our public schools. 

I promised when I began that I would take but little of your 
time. I will only say in conclusion, so far as this public celebration is 
concerned, for our talk is only with the schools of to-day, I advise you, 
I entreat you, to hold on to your public schools. Improve them in the 
future good as they may be, somewhat as they have been improved in 
the past ; for upon their success rests the safety, the salvation and the 
perpetuity of our institutions. 

Graduates of the High School of 1886: — It is now my priv- 
ilege and my duty as a representative of the school committee of our 
city to say that so far as you are concerned, you have performed 
the last act that connects you with the public schools of our city. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 1 99 

You have faithfully pursued that course of study that has been pre- 
scribed to you, and so faithfully and well have you executed the tasks 
imposed that you are now to receive the diploma or certificate, that 
you may hold for yourselves and your friends as evidence of this duty 
well performed. 

If, as has been said by the last speaker, you end your connection 
with our schools with the idea that you have accomplished all that is 
to be accomplished, simply by graduating with honor; if from this 
time onward you shall not deem it necessary to labor and strive, that 
which has been done for you, or you have done for yourselves, will be 
of little avail. I reiterate the words of Dr. Vose — there has been 
something taught during the years that you have been in our schools 
besides the lessons of books. 

I know from the character and faithfulness of your teachers that 
other lessons have been taught you. I know that the importance of 
character has been impressed upon you, and that an attempt has been 
made to aid you in forming a character that will be of lasting benefit 
to the world when you shall pass out of the public schools of our city. 
This to you is an epoch; an important event in your lives. Many of 
you go out into the world to take upon yourselves those duties that 
every citizen must take upon himself. Others go to higher institu- 
tions of learning to make better preparation for the battle that is 
before. 

If there is one argument for the continuation of our High School 
over and above all others, it is that it furnishes to our community 
the teachers that shall do for the children that are growing up what 
has been done by your teachers during your course of study. 

To you, young gentlemen, who are going out into life, place your 
standard high. Do not forget that character after all is the thing that 
will wear best. Do not forget that upon you rests a portion at least of 
the prosperity and of the continuation of our government itself, and 
that as you perform your duties well, so will you best repay the city 
that out of its treasury has done for you that which to-day is com- 
pleted by your graduation. 



2 CO 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



Wishing you all that success that you and your best friends can 
desire for you, I will now present to each one of you that certificate 
that has been awarded you in the form of a diploma. 

The following graduates of the High School were then 
awarded their diplomas: 



Kate S. Anthony. 
Kate S. Ballon, 
Amelia E. Berg, 
Grace C. Blake, 
Lucy L. Blanchard, 
Minnie S Bosworth. 
Cora A. Bowen. 
Adelaide V. Brown, 
Annie S. Brown, 
Abbie R. Bucklin. 
Nora L. Calef, 
Alice W. Case, 
Fannie E. Chadsey, 
Agnes V. Conlon, 
Amelia S. Cory, 
Jessie E. Curtis. 
Mary E. Davis, 
Ethel Doyle, 
Helen E. Essex, 
Anna L. Evans. 



GIRLS DEPARTMENT. 

Georgianna W. Fraser, 
Alice A. Goff, 
Annie M. Hooper. 
Annie M. Horton, 
L. Linda Hunt. 
Anna B. Jencks, 
Ella M. Jencks, 
Sarah E. Kelly, 
Mary E. Lincoln, 
Belle L. Lyons, 
Eliza A. McGuinness, 
Jennie I. McKenna, 
Katie C. Molloy, 
Ella F. Morrow, 
Harriet E. Morse, 
Emma L. Murray, 
Florence I. Newell, 
Stella F. Nickei-son, 
Bessie W. Olney, 
Grace H. Parker. 



Elizabeth S. Parsons, 
Sophronia E Peabody, 
Mabel F. Peck, 
Nellie L. Raleigh, 
Addie C. Randall, 
Mary L. Schmidt, 
Jennie W. Smith, 
Cordelia J. Stanwood, 
Mary E. Stone, 
Harriet L. Swan, 
Alice E. Tempest, 
Sarah Tempest, 
Alice C. Tripp, 
Elizabeth R. Turner, 
Alice W. Vanstone, 
Mabel E. A. Waite, 
Erminie E. White, 
Minnie E. Williams, 
Alice R. Wood, 



CLASSICAL DEPARTMENT. 



Fannie R. Ballou, 
Martin S. Budlong. 
Alexis Caswell, 
William H. Eddy, 
Edwin C. Frost, 
William W. Hunt, 



Alfred S. Johnson, 
Clara M. McCrillis, 
Frederick M. Rhodes, 
Frederic M. Sackett, Jr., 
Clara E. Sherman, 
Arthur W. Smith, 



Brown E. Smith, 
Frederick E. Stockwell, 
James F. Thompson, 
Clifford S. Tower, 
George H. Webb, 
Samuel E. Whitaker, 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



20I 



ENGL 

Myron C. Ballon, 
Lucius A. Bostwick, 
Oscar S. Bo wen, 
Herbert J. Briggs, 
Harrison S. Buffum, 
Clifford Carleton, 
Walter W. Chase, 
Harry C. Cheney, 
Harry C. Curtis, 
Franklin R. Cushman, 
Wendell R. Davis, 



ISH AND SCIENTIFIC 

Frederic C. Dunn, 
Thomas C. Dunn, 
Frank I. Hammond, 
Charles S. Harris, 
George W. Hewlett, 
Herman K. Higgins, 
Winthrop D. Hilton, 
Dennis J. Holland, 
Walter B. Keene, 
George R. Libby, 



DEPARTMENT. 

Louis D. Norton, 
Charles M. Perry, 
Henry 0. Potter, 
Edwin Reed, 
Herbert W. Rice, 
Henry S. Robinson, 
Howard C. Saunders, 
Henry C. Sellew, 
Wanton Vaughan, 
Adolphus T. Vigneron. 



The " Hymn of Peace " was sung by the pupils and the 
audience. Mr. Van Slyck then addressed the graduates of 
the grammar schools as follows : 

I hardly know what I can add to what I have already said. It is 
to be hoped at least that you will not sever your connection with our 
schools to-day. You simply have arrived at that place in your school 
life from which you depart to the High School. In four years we hope 
to see most, if not all, of you occupy the places of those who have 
now become the alumni of the High School. You have to make 
your rank and your standing in our schools. 

Out of the ordinary course it becomes my duty to deliver to 
you the diplomas which are the certificates of your good work, and 
which entitle you to an entrance into the High School. 

The following were awarded diplomas : 



BRANCH AVENUE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Linie M. Angell, 
Nettie Douglas Arnold, 



Maggie Barrett, 
Jennie Buckley, 
Mary E. Burgess, 



Fannie Scott, 
Emma Slater. 



Lillie M. Bishop, 
Jessie T. Brown, 
26 



BRIDGHAM GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Mabel C. Brown, 
Evelyn T. Buchanan, 



May L. Bunker, 
Eva A. Burlingame, 



202 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



Ada L. Burrough, 
Annie M. Cady, 
Mamie A. Carrique, 
Louise M. Corcoran, 
Lulie A. Cox, 
Josephine H. Curran, 
Sadie L. Davis, 
Jennie L. Dutcher, 
Nellie E. Dutcher, 
Katie J. L. Eddy, 
Lylie O. Foster, 
Mamie A. Foster, 
Evelyn J. Frost, 
Grace E. Gay, 
Ella M. Gilmore, 
Amy D. Hall, 
Nellie F. Hall, 
Eva C. Haskins, 
Maybel L. Hay-ward, 
Helen S. Hobbs, 
Mabel T. Kingsbury, 
Mary M. Loring, 
Abby F. May, 
Amelia Molter, 
Annie A. Monroe, 
Minnie H. Morton, 



Effie A. Northup, 
Stella L. Paine, 
Mamie E. Pearce, 
Hatlie E. Pierce, 
May A. Potter, 
Phebe A. Rathbone, 
Grace Read, 
Jennie M. Rider, 
Eda M. Round, 
Amanda Scott, 
Gertrude W. Shaw, 
Edith L. Smith, 
Sarah Smith, 
Maude L. Spencer, 
Mabel R. Stone, 
Jennie W. Swallow, 
Jessie O. Swallow, 
Annie M. Talbot, 
Clara M. Tanner, 
E. Gertrude Tifft, 
Alice F. Tourtellott, 
Lottie F. Valletta, 
Annie F. Watson. 

Earl C. Arnold, 
Charles H. Baxter, 
Thomas A. Burt, 



Charles E. Burt, 
Allen D. Cady, 
Walter R. Callender, 
Louis A. Colwell, 
Walter R. Drowne, 
Charles G. Easton, 
Daniel F. George, 
Samuel J. Greene, 
Clifford H. Griffin, 
Howard E. Hancock, 
Louis R. Hunt, 
Richard E. Jenks, 
Russell D. Lewis, 
James A. Locke, 
Linwood Lothrop, 
Stephen D. Peck, 
Frederick W. Simmons, 
Arthur H. Smith, 
Frederick I. Smith, 
John L. Sprague, 
William E. Taber, 
Clinton E. Walch, 
Robert Warren, 
Lewis Waterman, 
Edward A. Wilder, 
Clarence Winsor. 



CANDACE STREET GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Grace E. Clarke, 
Florence W. Hobson, 
Mary J. Keefe, 
Jennie C. McCormick, 



Ora L. Reynolds, 
Sunie A. Rounds. 

Horatio J. Buffum, 



William Gerke, 
David S. Mathewson, 
William Scott. 



DOYLE AVENUE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Mary A. Bailey, 
Jennie B. Baker, 
Lillian M. Lougee, 
Katie A. McLean, 



Nellie M. Simonds, 
Meda E. Terry, 
Emma R. Thurston, 
Bertha M. Turner. 



Chester H. Aldrich, 
Earl S. Colman, 
George M. Crowell, 
Willie F. Grant, 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



203 



Herbert E. Hunt, 
William W. Kirbv, 
Guy Metcalf, 



Clair C. Miller, 
Milford D. Rogers, 
George W. S. Stellev, 



Warren L. Turner, 
William M. Virgin, 
Langdon 1!. Wheaton. 



ELMWOOD GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Edith L. Austin, 
Beatrice J. Barker, 
Hattie F. Bemis, 
Harriet E. Blaisdell, 
Ellen J. Blake, 
Addie F. Burgess, 
Mabel G. Cole, 
Sarah U, Dodge, 
Grace M. Eliott, 
Cassie A. Fenner, 
Edith H. Fenner, 
Mabel Flay-. 
Mary M. Horton, 



Lillian E. Mason, 
Sarah McCahey, 
Mary McLoughlin, 
Lizzie C. Pond, 
Frances A. Root, 
Agnes A. Smith, 
Ida E. Taft. 

Frank P. Bigelow, 
Joseph W. Chase, 
Howard 1 ). Hammond, 
James T. Harris, 
Mortimer Hooper, 



Edward II. Lockwood, 
Arthur Magoon, 
Francis P. McDonough, 

Edward S. McGregor, 
August L. Mounier, 
William E. Patt, 
Charles D. Peckham, 
Gorham E. Pomroy, 
Arthur R. Rickson, 
Henry M. Sanger, 
George H. Swan, 
Frederick J. White, 
George B. Wickes. 



FEDERAL STREET GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Nellie F. Burke, 
Cora W. Duckworth, 
Maggie C. Doonan, 
Alice N. Hagan, 
Minnie E. Hazard, 
Eleanor W. Jillson, 
Mary McCabe, 
Lizzie McEntee, 
Nettie L. Mowry, 
Katie A. Muldoon, 
Louise O'Leary, 
Grace L. Pratt, 



Maggie E. Smith, 
Addie R. Weekes. 

Charles D. Anderson, 
Edwin E. Baker, 
Leslie B. Ballou, 
Harry A. Baxter, 
Wallace E. Burch, 
Archibald J. Cameron, 
Joseph W. Cole, 
Charles E. Griggs, 
Charles F. Hall, 
John Hall, 



William F. Hall. 
Frank Heath, 
Walter O. Holt, 
Edward V. Luther, 
William P. McKenna, 
Andrew D. Paine, 
Clarence H. Seabury, 
John A. Sheehan, 
I. Almy Shippee, 
Arthur M. Smith, 
Elbridge A. Stetson, 
Fred Williams. 



MOUNT PLEASANT GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Helen Dee, 
Susie J. Hall, 
Theresa Henry, 



Agnes Hunt, 
Theresa Hunt, 
Jessie B. Provan, 
Flora E. Richards, 



Grace Staples. 

John J. Cannon, 
Charles H. Gorman. 



204 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 






OXFORD STREET GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



May L. Barker, 
Abbie E. Bradford, 
Nettie S. Chase, 
Ida C. Crowell, 
Mary E. Crowther, 
Ella L. Deane, 
Theodosia Doughty, 
Lizzie Goodrich, 
Carrie M. Grout, 
Susie J. Harkins, 
M. Florence Howland, 



Nellie S. Lawton, 
Alice Little, 
Veronica McWilliams, 
Ellen Murphy, 
Lillian M. Paine, 
Bertha Rem linger, 
Theresa Richards, 
Mary E. Scott, 
Anna C. Slade, 
M. Emma Smith, 
Mary A. Sprague, 



Anna J. Stillman, 
Mary I. Sweeney, 
Mary E. Tourtellotte, 
Effie M. Towne, 
Annie C. Whittier. 

Herbert S. Burgess, 
Louis II. Crossley, 
James Gallagher, 
Alfred Rounds, 
Henry A. Strater. 



POINT STREET GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Charlotte E. F. Bratesman, 
Alice L. Brown, 
Florence E. Brown, 
Florence M. Cole, 
Martha A. Cole, 
Mary E. Congdon, 
Cora G. Crapon, 
Hannah E. Cruickshank, 
Margaret E. Devlin, 
Louise F. Donahue, 
Mary M. Earle, 
Mary A. Farrell, 
Celia A. Holihan, 



Eunice B. Holmes, 
Mary L. Manchester, 
Mary E. Martin, 
Luc)' J. Mathewson, 
Clara B. Matteson, 
Eliza H. Place, 
Margaret E. Quinn, 
Jeannette Schott, 
Elizabeth R. Taylor, 
Mary Tetlow, 
Annie T. Turner, 
Annie G. Vigneron. 



Albert S. Abbott, 
Edward S. Bucklin, 
Charles H. Butts, 
Albert L. Capper, 
Daniel C. Chace, 
Henry C. Cram, 
Waldo E. Davis, 
Charles II. Griffin, 
Joseph W. Lewis, 
Walter E. Mason, 
George L. Munroe, 
Eugene A. Potter, 
Fred A. Wilde. 



THAYER STREET GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



Florence A. Aldrich, 
Mary C. Almy, 
Ellen A. Day, 
Mary V. Gerald, 
Florence A. Goodspeed, 
Lilias A. Hall, 
Carrie J. Henson, 
Annie L. Hicks, 
Edith L. Hill, 
Madeleine Otey, 



Hortense L. Pearce, 
May Read, 
Hattie B. Salisbury, 
Mabel A. Smith, 
Mabel E. Townsend. 

Fred A. Baker, 

James Clifford, 
Herbert M. Graham, 
Walter J. Hill, 



George W. Hogg, 
Harry W. Hoyt, 
Walter G. Kent, 
Tosiah W. Packard, 
Harry O. Peckham, 
Leon L. Pierce, 
George H. Waterhouse, 
William M. Williams, 
William C. Wilson. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 2O5 

After singing " My Country, 'tis of Thee," by the scholars, 
the exercises were concluded with the Benediction by the Rev. 
Samuel H. Webb. 

Benediction. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the 
fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us evermore. Amen. 

In accordance with the programme of the committee, a 
successful Balloon Ascension was made from Roger Williams 
Park, by Captain Ezra Allen, at six o'clock in the afternoon. 

In the evening a Concert was given by the Rhode Island 
Choral Association, at Infantry Hall, assisted by Reeves' 
Orchestra, the soloists being Mrs. Edward Hoffman and Mr. 
Thomas E. Johnson. The chorus was composed of five 
hundred voices, and was led by Professor Carl Zerrahn. 
The hall was filled to its utmost capacity, and the concert was 
fully appreciated by those in attendance. 

There was also a concert by the National Band on Craw- 
ford street Bridge from 8 to 10 o'clock. 



SECOND DAY. 



MILITARY, CIVIC AND TRADES PROCESSIONS. 



Thursday, June 24. 



THE SECOND DAY. 



The celebration of the second day was opened by the 
firing of a national salute by the Marine Corps of Artillery. The 
church bells were rung at six o'clock in the morning, followed 
by the ringing of the Grace Church chimes. 

Military and Civic Procession. 
At ten o'clock the military and civic procession was 
formed in the following order: 

Platoon of mounted police in command of Captain Jeremiah Costine. 
Chief Marshal, Colonel Robert II. I. Goddard. 

Chief of Staff, Captain Benjamin L. Hall. 
Assistant Marshal, Captain Frederick B. Burt. 
Active Staff. Charles P. Bennett, Edwin Brown. Captain Eugene A. Cory, Joseph 
" L A Fowler, Edward Field, zd, Captain C. C. Gray, Henry L. Goddard, 
George O. Johnson, Charles H. Mathewson, Lieutenant William 
N. Otis, Colonel John C. Pegram, Major E. C. Pomroy, 
Frank D. Simmons, William H. Thurber, B. Frank 
Vaughan, Colonel Arthur H. Watson, T. L. 
Walling, Lieutenant Charles 
A- Winsor. 
Honorary Staff, Colonel Crawford Allen, Genera! C. H. Barney, Genera. W. W. 
Douglas, Dr. William F. Hutchinson, Colonel Elias M Jenckes, Colo- 
nel J Albert Monroe, Colonel John McManus, Colonel Isaac M. 
Potter, General Horatio Rogers, Colonel E. H. Rockwell. 
Major Frank A. Rhodes, General James Shaw, Colo- 
nel Nicholas Van Slyck, Colonel J. Lippitt 
Snow. 
Bugler, Louis Schmidt 

27 



2IO TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



FIRST DIVISION. 

Colonel Joseph H. Kendrick, Marshal. 

Aids, Colonel John J. Jencks, Colonel John F. Clark, Captain John Howe, Captain 

Thomas W. Manchester, Lieutenant Amos M. Bowen. 

Reeves American Band, Bowen R. Church, Leader. 

United Train of Artillery Drum Corps. 

United Train of Artillery, Colonel Cyrus M. Van Slyck, Commanding, and Staff. 

Company D, Captain John F. Mumford. 

Company C, Captain Benjamin W. Smith. 

Company A, Captain Edward M. Clarke. 

Colt's Band of Hartford, W. C. Spary, Leader. 

Governor's Foot Guard of Hartford, Connecticut, Major J. C. Kinney, Commanding, 

and Staff. 
Company A, Captain J. C. Pratt. 
Company B, Lieutenant F. C. Clark. 
Company C, Lieutenant H. J. Lord. 
Company D, Lieutenant T. C. Naedele. 
Continental Drum Corps, J. F. Parks, Leader. 
Fitchburg Brass Band, G. A. Patts, Leader. 
Worcester Continentals, Lieutenant Colonel E. J. Russell, Commanding, and btafl 
Company A, Captain John M. Morse, Jr. 
Company B, Captain Charles B. Whiting. 
Company C, Captain William S. Jourdan. 
Company D, Captain Henry E. Smith. 
Fifth Battalion Infantry, Rhode Island Militia, Major Edwin D. McGuinness, Com- 
manding, and Staff. 
Company B, Captain William McPherson. 
Company A, Captain Bernard Hackett. 
Company C, Captain John Neary. 
Company D, Captain Anthony Mungiven. 
Fourth Battalion Drum Corps. 
Fourth Battalion of Infantry, Rhode Island Militia, Major George D. Smith, Com- 
manding, and Staff. 
Company A, Captain William H. Beckett. 

Company B, Captain Stephen J. West. 

Newport Drum Corps, T. Farrell, Leader. 

Slocum Light Guard, Providence, Captain George A. Forsyth. 

Tower Light Infantry, Pawtucket, Lieutenant G. W. Esterbrooks 

Newport Light Infantry, Captain Philip F. Schneider. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 211 



Bristol Light Infantry, Lieutenant J. H. Morrisey, Commanding. 

Company M, Sixth Regiment M. V. M., of Milford, Captain H. E. Whitney. 

Company of Cadets. 

Lynn Cadet Band, George Merrill, Leader. 

Providence First Light Infantry, Colonel W. H. Thornton, Commanding. 

Honorary Staff, Captain A. Allen, Lieutenant George B. Newton, Hartford City 

Guards, Lieutenant James Miller, Seventh Uniformed Veterans, New York, 

Doctor Senor Don Antonio Marie Soteldo, Venezuelan Minister at 

Washington. 

Company A, Lieutenant G. L. Butts. 

Company B, Captain Frank W. Peabody. 

Company C, Captain Hiram Kendall. 

Company D, Captain Edwin Draper. 

Signal Corps, Sergeant Charles Pierce in Command. 

First Machine Gun Platoon R. I. M., Lieutenant William Ely in Command. 

Company M, First Regiment M. V. M., Fall River, Captain Brayley, Commanding. 

Company K, First Regiment M. V. M., Boston, Captain Parkinson, Commanding. 
Company E, First Battalion Infantry, R. I. M., Westerly, Captain E. B. Pendleton, 

Commanding. 
Company F, First Battalion Infantry, R. I. M., Westerly, Rufus B. Woods, Command- 
ing. 
First Light Infantry Veteran Association, Colonel William E. Clark, Commanding. 
Boston Light Infantry Veteran Association, Colonel Brown, Commanding. 
Seventh Regiment Band, New York, C. A. Cappa, Leader. 
Drum Corps. Seventh Veteran Regiment, New York, Drum Major John Smith, Leader. 
Seventh Regiment Veteran Association, New York, Colonel Locke W. Winchestei , 

Commanding. 
Company A, Captain John T. Baker. 
Company B, Captain J. C. Giffing. 
Companies C and K, Captain Henry W. T. Mali. 
Company D, Lieutenant L. G. Woodhouse. 
Company E, Captain W. A. Speaight. 
Company F, Captain F. A. Goodwin. 
Company G, Lieutenant W. E. Callender. 
Company H, Lieutenant William P. Howell. 
Company I, Captain E. G. Arthur. 
Seventh Regiinent War Veterans, General Nugent, Commanding. 
Company B, First Battalion Cavalry R. I. M., Captain A. L. McLaughlin, Com- 
manding. 
Providence Marine Corps of Artillery, Captain John A. Russell in Command. 
Providence Marine Corps of Artillery Veteran Association, Lieutenant-Colonel Wil- 
liam C. Millen. 



212 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



SECOND DIVISION. 

Marshal, Colonel Theodore A. Barton. 

Aids, John P. Walker, B. Frank Pabodie, W. F. Hutchinson, William Frankland, 

George W. Barry, William Barker. 

Department of Rhode Island Grand Army of the Republic. 

J. V. D. C. Gideon Spencer, and A. A. G. Peleg Macomber and staff. 

First Massachusetts Regiment Band, James M. Clark, Leader. 

Prescott Post No. i, Providence, J. H. Fairbrother, Commander, W. H. Chene ry, 

Adjutant. 
Company A, Elmer L. Baumen, Commander. 

Company B, A. W. Delnah, Commander. 
Company C, Charles E. Hartwell, Commander. 
Valley Falls Drum Corps, Frank Richards, Leader. 
Ballou Post, No 3, Central Falls, Zophar Skinner, Commander. 
Slocum Post, No. 10, Providence — Captain C. Henry Alexander, Commander. 
Company A, M. H. Najac, Commander. 
Company B, S. A. Barker, Commander. 
Company C, D. G. West, Commander. 
Company D, C. H. Potter, Commander. 
Charles C. Baker Post, No. 16 Wickford, George T. Cranston, Commander. 
Allen Drum Band, Charles Allen, Leader. 
William A. Streeter Post, No. 145, North Attleboro', E. D. Guild, Commander. 
Arnold Post Drum Corps, Sergeant Streeter, Leader. 
Arnold Post, No. 4, Providence, John T. Drinan, Commander. 
Ives Post, No. 13, Providence, J. II. Francis, Commander. 
C. E. Lawton Post Fife and Drum Band, Thomas Hayes, Drum Major. 
C. E. Lawton Post, No. 5, Newport, W. S. Bailey, Commander. 
Budlong Post, No. iS, Westerly, J. A. Babcock, Commander. 
Farragut Post, No. 8, Riverside, W. C. Severance, Commander. 

Smith Post Drum Corps, Daniel McKenna, Leader. 

Smith Post, No. 9, Woonsocket, Henry P. Williams, Commander. 

McGregor Post, No. 14, Phenix, William Johnson, Commander. 

Veteran Drum Corps, Pawtucket, B. Sexton, Leader. 

Tower Post, No. 17, Pawtucket, J. W. Seabury, Commander. 

THIRD DIVISION. 

Aids, George Cady, Nathaniel West, Holden O. Hill, William W. Batchelder. 

Pioneer, Daniel Grant. 

National Band, Thomas W. Hedley, Leader. 

Marshal, Dexter Gorton. 



ANNIVERSARY OF TROVIDENCE. 213 



Providence Veteran Firemen Association, George II. Jencks, President. 
Bucket Brigade, L. M. Walling in Command; N. G. Totten, L. P. Fowler, foseph 

West, J. C. Dodge, E.J. Ham, George E. Cleveland. 

Axe and Pine Brigade; John R. Oakes, Daniel M. Grimwood, pipemen; Henry E. 

Pierce, W. A. Perkins, Nicholas B. DnlT, Axeman. 

Company A, Hero, No. 1, Otis P. Underwood, Foreman. 

Company B, Ocean, No. 7, Pembroke S. Eddy, Foreman. 

Company C, Gaspee, No. 9, James S. Allen, Foreman. 

Boston Veteran Firemen's Association, W. P. Cherrington, President; Charles Blake, 

Captain. 

Water Witch Engine Company, No. 6, A. C. Eddy, President; Ira Winsor, Marshal. 

East Providence Engine Company, Watchemoket, No. 1, John J. Mullen, Foreman; 

George W. Fuller, Assistant. 

Continental Band, George Stone, Leader. 

Providence Fire Department Reserves. 

Steamer Niagara No. 5, escorted by members of the Providence Veteran Fireman'6 

Association. 
Hook and Ladder Truck, JohnB. Chace, No. 4, escorted by members of the Providence 

Veteran Fireman's Association. 
Providence Fire Department, permanent steamer Atlantic No. S, Joseph H. Penno, 

Foreman; Merrill E. Hicks, Assistant. 
Hayes Hook and Ladder Truck No. 6, C. J. Connor, Foreman; Thomas II. Duffy, 

Assistant. 

Pioneer Hose No. 2, Lewis A. Cutler, Foreman. 

Chemical, No. 1, Delbert Hopkins, Foreman. 

Protective Fire Department, Assistant Foreman David G. Knott in Command. 

Engineers' Association of Rhode Island, Oliver C. Johnson, President ; Edward A. 

Bezely, Marshal, 

FOURTH DIVISION. 

Marshal, Colonel Lewis E. Davis. 

Aids, Oscar N. Bender, Horace H. Franklin, Charles Battey. 

East Foxboro' Brass Band, Abijah Draper, Leader. 

Uniform Rank, Knights of Pythias. 

Rhode Island Division, No. 1, Sir Knight Commander, Fred. E. Newell. 

Narragansett Division, K. of P., Drum Corps, Matthew Hoey, Leader. 

Narragansett Division, No. 2, Sir Knight Commander, Thomas Fidler. 

Berkeley Brass Band, Michael Crotty, Leader. 

Manchester Unity Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

Loyal Bellevue Lodge, Providence, William Walker, Noble Grand. 

Loyal Friendship Lodge, Taunton. 



214 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

Loyal Enterprise Lodge, Lonsdale, James Moore, N. G. 

Loyal Bud of Hope Lodge, Providence, William Riding, N. G. 

Loyal Unity Lodge, Fall River. 

Loyal Victoria Lodge, Providence, William Hening, N. G. 

Loyal Prosperity Lodge, Pawtucket, Grand Master, John Thompson. 

Loyal Lily Lodge, Providence, William Beck, N. G. 

Loyal Samaritan Lodge, Providence, Charles Shirley, N. G. 

Carriages containing Thomas H.Johnson, Grand Master; John S. B. Clarke, Deputy 

Grand Master, Boston District; Isaac Creaser, P. D. G. M. ; William Thorp, 

P. C. S. ; George Bullard, P. T. ; Thomas Fyans, P. P. G. M. 

Excelsior Band, T. C. Brown, Leader. 

Narragansett Lodge of Odd Fellows, H.Johnson, Marshal. 

Committee from Association of Mechanics and Manufacturers, Messrs Charles N. 

Harrington, D. Brainard Blake, C. R. Barney, Charles G. Gardner, Samuel 

W. Brown, James H. Fiske, D. A. Ballou. 

FIFTH DIVISION. 

Marshal, General Nelson Viall. 

Aids, John J. Jackson, George Roberts, W. H. Oliver, William W. Nichols, Alfred 

Dawson, J. F. Breitschmid. 

Golf's City Band, Providence, W. H. Goff, Drum Major, L. F. Carr, Leader. 

Order of Alfredians, George Roberts, Marshal. 

Brigade No. I, Providence, Commander, John Turner. 

Brigade No. 2, Olneyville, Commander, Fred. Webley. 

Brigade No. 3, Providence, Commander, William Basser. 

Brigade No. 4, Providence, Commander, Cyrus Bucklin. 

Carriages containing Right Hon. Protector Daniel Eastwood and other officers of the 

Supreme Council of the United States. 

Scotch Societies ; Marshal, Alfred Dawson. 

Pipers, William Ennson, of New York, Leader. 

Members of Caledonian Society in Highland costume, escorting Grand Clan Officers 

of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 

Grand Chief, William Anderson. 

Aids, A. H. Gray, John Black. 

Members of Clan Cameron, No. 7, B. S. C„ of Providence, in full Highland costume. 

Clan McKenzie, No. 2, Boston. 

Clan Gordon, No. 4, Taunton, Mass. 

Clan McGregor, Quincy, Mass. 

Clan Frazer, No. 11, Pawtucket. 

Clan Mackintosh, No. 13, Cambridge, Mass. 






ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 21 5 

Clan Cordon, Hartford, Conn. 

Clan McGregor, Newport, R. I. 

National Band, Bristol, R. I., William Hutchinson, Leader. 

Ancient Order of Foresters. 

Rhode Island Fife and Drum Band, James Frazer, Leader. 

Marshal, J. Holwer. 

Knights of Sherwood Forest, Uniform Rank, Conclave No. 28, Providence, f. II. 

Brown, Commander. 

Court Roger Williams, No. 66S5, Commander, T. E. Noonan. 

Court What Cheer, No. 6on, Providence, Commander, Joseph Mohn. 

Court Love and Truth, No. 6097. 

Court Pride, No. 62S7, of Lonsdale, Commander, Eli Battev. 

Court Roger Williams, No. 66S5, Providence, Commander, George Burt. 

Court Star, No. 6936, Providence, Commander, Peter O'Neil. 

Court Olnevville, No. 6463, OIneyville, Commander, William P. liaison. 

Conclave Uniform Rank, No. 30, of Olnevville, Commander, James II. Martin. 

Court Narragansett, No. 7:69, Providence, Commander, R. L. Ward. 

Westerly Band, Westerly, R. I., Charles Redford, Leader. 

Order of Sons of St. George. 

Marshal, W. H.Oliver. 

Aids, J. Auckley, and representatives from Lodges 185, Samuel Slater, of Pavvtucket; 

Mayflower, Wanskuck; Nelson, Westerly; Edward Harris, Woonsocket ; 

Britannia, Lonsdale ; Peabody, Providence ; Beaconsfield, 

Providence. 

Marshal, William H. Taylor. 

Peabody Lodge, No. 184, Providence, Commander, W. H. Oliver, 

Samuel Slater Lodge, No. 185, Pawtucket, Commander, Samuel Holt. 

Beaconsfield Lodge, No. 186, Providence, Commander, Harry Goode. 

Britannia Lodge, No. 196, Lonsdale, Commander, Thomas Davis. 

Edward Harris Lodge, No. 200, Woonsocket, R. I., Commander, Jnmes Bennett. 

Nelson Lodge, No. 204, Westerly, R. I., Commander, John Sharpe. 

Mayflower Lodge, No. 209, Wanskuck, R. I., Commander, Frank L. Martin. 

New Hampshire Training Ship Band of Newport, R. I., W. R. McQuown, Leader. 

Italian Societies. 

Marshal, J. F. Breitschmid. 

Societa Unione, Benevolenza, Italiana, of Providence ; Commander, Vicenzo Starts. 

SIXTH DIVISION 

Marshal, Benjamin W. Gallup. 

Aids, Samuel L. Potter, Jr., Olin Hill, H. A. L. Potter, Jr., Thomas Cullen, F. G. 

Crosby, II. H. Wentworth, and T. Foster. 



2l6 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



Taunton Cadet Band, C. F. Berry, Leader, G. E. Perkins, Drum Major. 

Emmet Temperance Cadets, Captain, Daniel O'Connell in Command. 

Olneyville Temperance Cadets, Lieutenant James Lanahan in Command. 

Providence Temperance Cadets, Lieutenant William Upton in Command. 

Central Falls Temperance Cadets, Captain Charles O'Connell in Command. 

St. Michael's Temperance Cadets, Captain M. A. Kelley in Command. 

Pawtucket Temperance Cadets, Captain George Campbell in Command. 

Union Temperance Cadets of Olneyville, Lieutenant John McKenna in Command. 

Delegates from the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of the State. 
Delegates from the Divisions of the Sons of Temperance of Pawtucket, Central Falls 

and Valley Falls. 

National Deputy and General Officers of the Sons of Temperance. 

Delegates from Hill's Grove Lodge, No. 12, Sons of Temperance. 

Delegates from Victory Lodge, No. 3, Sons of Temperance, of Olneyville. 

Fountain Division, No. 4, of Woonsocket. 

John B. Gough Division of the Loyal Legion, Rev. J. H. Larry in Command. 

Company A, Captain Walter Holt in Command. 

Company B, Albert J. Stetson in Command. 

Company C, Captain E. H. Fairchilds in Command. 

Company D, Captain E. C. Lakey in Command. 

Company D, Captain G. W. Potter in Command. 

Company E, Captain Frank Norton in Command. 

Company F, Captain L. A. Allen in Command. 

Company G, Captain L. E. B. Lord in Command. 

Company H, Lieutenant C. C. Thomas in Command. 

Company I, Captain A. W. Smith in Command. 

SEVENTH DIVISION. 

Marshal, Alfred A. Cyr. 
Aids, Napoleon Rivard, Pierre Audet, Auguste Audet, Joseph Langevin, Alfred 

Lacroix. 

Committee of Reception, T. A. Jette, Joseph D. Dragen, A. Martin, Henry Bourgard, 

E. Pepin, M. Parmentier, Thomas Moray, L. Dragon, A. Jette, W. Des- 

marais, T. Pearon, L. Mieleit, T. Rivard, R. O'Brien, 

L. Peltin, E. Laberty. 

Quidnick Cornet Band, J. H. Sweet, Leader. 

St. Jean Baptiste Society, Providence, Dolphus Weimet, Commanding. 

St. Jean Baptiste Society, Centreville, Joseph Bignon, Commanding. 

Natick, Mass., Cadet Band, R. W. Erwin, Leader. 

Society St. Jean Baptiste, Canadian Francaise, Worcester, Louis Disbuchine, 

Commanding. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 21 7 



Union St. Joseph, Worcester. 
French American Band, William Heat, Leader. 
Club National, New Bedford. 
Millbury, Mass., Drum Corps. 
St. Jean Baptiste Society, Millbury, Charles Chibeau, Commander. 
Manville Brass Band, Ephraim Mandeville, Leader. 
Society St. Jean Baptiste, Manville. 
White's Military Band, W. E. White, Leader. 
Johnston's Fife and Drum Band of Worcester, A. H. Johnson, Leader. 
Lafayette Guards of Worcester, Captain Charles Wilmot. 
Society St. Jean Baptiste of Central Falls, Austin Bondreau, Commanding. 
Bande Canadienne of Fall River, P. F. Peloquin, Leader. 
Society St. Jean Baptiste of Fall River, Dr. W. Trudeau, Commanding; four aids. 
League des Patriates of Fall River, A. B. C. Delannay, Commanding. 
Woonsocket Continental Band, Charles E. Cook, Leader. 
Institute Canadien of Woonsocket, C. C. Garvin, Commanding. 
Woonsocket Social Brass Band, Andre Duval, Leader. 
Society St. Jean Baptiste, Dr. Joseph Hills, Commanding. 
Gaily decorated party wagon occupied by an orchestra and a male choir under 
the direction of Professor Bedard of this city. 
Six carriages containing clergymen, orators and invited guests of the St. Jean Bap- 
tiste societies. 
28 



218 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



Trades Procession. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon the trades procession 
was formed, as follows : 



Chief Marshal, Fred. E. Keep. 
Chief of Staff, Isaac L. Goff. 
Staff, D. Frank Longstreet, Charles Edward Paine, Isaac M. Potter, Fred. W. Hart- 
well, Hiram Kendall, Robert Fessenden, Charles E. Gills, Elisha H. Rock- 
well, Charles A. Hopkins, James G. Warren. 

FIXST DIVISION. 

Marshal, Charles A. Barden. 

Aids, Aurion V. Chevers, W. F. Knight. 

American Band, D. W. Reeves, Leader. 

Butchers' and Marketmen's Association. 

FLOUR DEALERS. 

Barden & Keep, large four-horse dray covered with a transparency. On the two 
sides were painted the following :" 1636. Barden & Keep. 1886. Flour and Pro- 
duce. 1S67. Fortunate Providence; Massachusetts gave her Roger Williams; Min- 
nesota decks her with flours ; New York comes to butter her ; Connecticut crazy to do 
it, too; Vermont sends in the whole farm." On the end, " Roger Williams Gone; 
Barden & Keep Here." 

A. B. McCrillis & Co., large four-horse dray. On both ends were piled bales of 
hay, in the middle barrels of flour placed endwise. Over this was extended a large 
sign with the words, " Progress in Milling; " under this, a picture of Indians and sav- 
ages grinding, with the words " four bushels per day," and a modern flour mill with 
" 40,000 bushels per day." On the end, " One Thing Kneaded : Good Bread by the 
Best Flour. A. B. McCrillis, 1857-1886." 

FLOUR AND GRAIN DEALERS. 
S. S. Sprague & Co., large four-horse team driven by two men ; on the bottom of 
the team barrels of flour, upright; piled on top of these, sacks of flour marked " S. S. 



ANNIVERSARY OF TROVIDENCE. 2IO. 

Sprague & Co." The whole trimmed with red, white and blue cloth, and small flags; 
the horses decorated with small flags. 

Roger Williams Flour Mill, four teams. One open team piled with barrels of 
Roger Williams flour showing labels, Roger Williams landing on Slate Rock; one 
team with boxes of brown bread mixture; one open team with bags of flour piled up. 

WHOLESALE GROCERIES. 

Murray & Allen, a large four-horse dray, piled with flour barrels; horses with 
blankets marked " Superlative Flour;" a large sign running lengthwise, " Murray & 
Allen, Millers' Agents." 

E. M. Aldrich Si Co., a large four-horse team draped with broad red, white and blue 
drapery ; boxes of soap piled up in pyramidal form ; on top, sign, " E. M. Aldrich & 
Co., Wholesale Grocers, Rhode Island Agents for James' S Kirk's Laundry Soaps." 
On the back of the pile, at the bottom, a large, square rosette of red and blue cloth ; 
the rear to the top draped with red, yellow and blue; at the sides a large picture of 
James S. Kirk's soap factory. 

Babcock & Brigham, an open team piled with boxes of " B. & W." tobacco; on the 
corners, upright signs. Inside, two men distributing circulars. 
Bugbee & Brownell, a closed team. 

WHOLESALE PROVISIONS. 

Henry M. Kimball, three open teams; one filled with large barrels of beef, 
another filled with barrels; sign, "Established Wednesday, December 22, 1852;" 
decorated with red, white and blue bands and white streamers. 

RETAIL GROCERS. 

Arnold & Maine; the two members of the firm rode in an open buggy, flanked on 
each side by mounted horsemen, decorated with flags; two open wagons filled with 
clerks and employes of the firm, decorated with flags; six covered delivery wagons, 
each piled with goods, bags of coffee, brooms and woodenware, baskets, boxes of soap 
and canned goods, cheese, flour and grain. 

Boston Grocery Store, five teams; one yellow-covered team with United States 
shield and words, "What Cheer, 1636-18S6;" an open express team, row of small 
flour barrels, pyramid of butter kegs with red letters, " Pure Butter," tea chests 
in pyramid, small fancy chests on top ; various canned goods, flour bags, parcels, all 
decorated with flags and red, white and blue bands. 

P. A. Monroe & Co., the two members of the firm in a hack, flanked by two 
horsemen bearing the signs, " We Always Lead." Three open teams with soap, tea 
chests, flour barrels, and one covered team all decorated with flags and draped colors. 



2 20 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

Fred. R. Smith, two teams, one covered, decorated with twining colors, and an 
attractive display of goods, flour bags at bottom, canned goods, and on the top row 
bottles of pickles, oil, etc. Also a representation of a market; a frame with hams, 
bacon, etc., hanging back of which was a counter, with baskets of eggs, lemons, etc., 
and a clerk cutting up a boglona sausage, from which he made sandwiches ; back of 
him a meat block and axe. 

G. F. Aldrich, an open express team, a sign extending crosswise, decorated with 
streamers and flags. 

L. C. Malcom & Co., six teams; two covered two-horse teams filled with neatly 
arranged soap boxes and illustrated advertising cards, and twined with streamers; 
four open teams with the same, others with tea chests and two large life-sized paste- 
board images of washer-women. 

C. L. Holden & Co., a large four-horse team; horses decorated with plumes, team 
loaded with barrels of flour and sacks; decorated with red, white and blue material; 
driven by two men in continental costume, knee breeches and cocked hats. 

Hugh O'Donnell, two teams; one express team with tea chests decorated with 
colored streamers and flags; covered team decorated same. 

RETAIL MARKETS. 

Calef Brothers, four teams; two open teams with fresh vegetables of all de- 
scriptions arranged in market baskets ; one with barrels of beef tongues; one with 
small casks. 

A. D. Ross, teams with empty market baskets. 

Reuben Sweet, team with market goods neatly arranged. 

William V. Gardner, two closed teams, decorated with flags and twined streamers, 
drivers in white with white caps. 

Patrick Rodgers, two covered teams with broad bands of red, white and blue; on 
top, row of small flags. 

A. S. Pearce, one closed team, with bands of the national colors, and decorated 
with small flags. 

Olneyville Cash Store, two open teams ; one filled with tea chests, at the coiners 
brass tea caddies; decorations, small flags, bands of yellow and blue; one filled with 
baskets of fresh vegetables and canned goods neatly arranged; the men wore white 
linen coats. 

D. G. Edwards, two teams ; one covered, profusely decorated with red and white 
trimmings, with paper lanterns ; an open team with empty baskets, decorated with 
flags. 

Roberts & Alexander, one small two-wheeled cart with soap boxes, decorated 
with flags. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 221 



John Cullen, two closed teams, decorated with flags. 

Goodchild Brothers, two teams, with decorations of colored bands, and with an 
elaborate display of flags of all nations. 

J. K. Barney & Son, one team with broad borders of red, white and blue, and 
many small flags. 

A. C. Burroughs, two small open teams; one with flour barrels piled in pyramid; 
one with soap boxes. 

William S.Morse, a neat display of goods; piled up bags of coffee, rows of 
canned goods, bottled oils, olives, etc. 

O. Gerlach, two teams, handsomely prepared. 

Bates' Market, an open market wagon with fresh vegetables handsomely arranged 
in baskets ; three empty teams draped. 

W. H. Williams & Co., one closed team. 

C. F. Alverson.one team piled with egg boxes; one containing a cage of live 
poultry ; three closed teams. 

Hathaway Brothers, one team. 

C. L. Holden & Co., handsomely prepared teams. 

Gay, Sherman & Co., two teams; one filled with fresh vegetables in market bas- 
kets; one with barrels. 

Pidge Brothers, three teams with empty baskets. 

R. M. Joslin, two teams; one filled with fresh market vegtables in baskets and 
canned goods ; the other a striking display of eggs, piled in a large pyramidal egg case 
in an open market wagon. 

G. E. Kelley, three closed teams. 

A. H. Whittaker, handsomely prepared teams. 

At the end of the first division came the exhibit of the Whatcheer Printing Com- 
pany, a large dray with an awning handsomely decorated with red and yellow stream- 
ers and twining colors, and with flags. Under this were two presses ; one was a job 
press of modern type, worked by foot power rotary, which was striking off programmes 
of the day's exercises ; the other a hand press of old-fashioned make. 

SECOND DIVISION. 

Marshal, James G. Warren. 

Aids, Henry C Armstrong and William L. Haines. 

Arlington Band, Albert E. Weaver, Leader. 



222 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



CROCKERY DEALERS. 

Warren & Wood, four teams; one containing display of pitchers, surmounted with 
large "Roger Williams" pitcher and wheels faced with "Roger Williams" fans; 
another displaying plates; the third an advertising team, and a low gear loaded with 
boxes. 

Bernard McCaughey & Co., an exhibition of two " Hub" ranges and two individ- 
uals mixing and baking bread, in team tastefully decorated. 

SOAPINE. 

Kendall Manufacturing Company, four teams; one containing a representation of 
a monstrous whale, the whole depicting a whaling scene, with harpoons and oars 
and two Esquimaux washing the whale with sponges and soapine. The whale was 
built by William F. Ripon, who constructed the monstrous sea serpent in a trades 
procession thirty years ago; another team, a fac-simile of a box of soapine. 

Miley Soap Company, two teams; one loaded with boxes and the other decorated 
with bunting. 

B. F. Medbury, one buggy and covered express wagon containing boxes of soap. 

O. M. Humes, two teames containing soap, and in one a person washing and 
hanging out clothes. 

WHOLESALE TOBACCO. 

P. Lorillard & Co.,Jersey City, team adorned with flags and bunting; the 126th 
anniversary of the firm. 

WHOLESALE PRODUCE DEALERS. 

W. S. Sweet & Son, seven teams, one an express wagon with beautiful covering, 
composed of pea vines, etc., beneath which was a bouquet of vegetables in a bed of 
lettuce and green stuff; another team with watermelons, and the remainder loaded 
with boxes and barrels, berry crates, etc. 

Brownell & Co., two teams, display of vegetables. 

S. Tourtellot & Co., five express wagons decorated with flags and bunting and 
loaded with fruit and produce boxes, barrels and crates. 

W. W. Whipple, five teams containing boxes for butter, eggs and poultry. 

Henry Taylor, one team of fruits and vegetables, decorated. 

WHOLESALE FRUIT DEALERS. 
Eddy Brothers, two teams, one express wagon with artificial covering, consist- 
ing of oak leaves, evergreen, etc, beneath which was a negro boy reclining in 
hammock eating watermelon ; and below hammock, in bottom of wagon, display of 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 223 

oranges, lemons, bananas, pineapples, etc. ; the other team loaded with fruit boxes 
and bags of peanuts. 

WHOLESALE FISH DEALERS. 

H. Midwood & Sons, four teams, one containing tastefully arranged display of 
canned fish. 

RETAIL FISH DEALERS. 
J. G. Mathews, one team, adorned with bunting and flags. 
J. Q. Adams, one team, decorated with bunting and flags. 

M. Dewing, two teams, one containing good display of oysters, clams and fish. 
VV. C. Geer & Co., two decorated teams. 
T. McMann, one decorated team. 

OATMEAL. 
Akron Milling Company, large four-horse team with barrels of flour and boxes. 

CONFECTIONERY AND ICE CREAM. 
J. H. Roberts, eight teams. 

CONFECTIONERY AND CIGARS. 
Weeks Brothers, top buggy and five teams. 
F. Mathewson, two teams. 

MINERAL WATER. 

Centredale Mineral Water Company, two teams containing display of mineral 
waters. 

ICE DEALERS. 

Earl Carpenter & Sons, one immense team, three horses abreast; on top of team 
all instruments for cutting ice. 

Auburn Ice Company, one team, four horses. 

OILS. 
Phetteplace & Co., one large team. 

THIRD DIVISION. 

Marshal, Hoffman S. Dorchester. 
Aids, James Warren, Jr., and A. J. Winship, Jr. 
Manufacturing Jewelers Association ; President George W. Hutchison, with mem- 
bers of finance and executive committees. James A. Thornton, Marshal of Jewelers; 



2 24 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

Theodore W. Foster, H. Frank Payton, B. A. Ballon, E. D. F. Wilkinson, R. E. Bud- 
long, Thomas W. Manchester, E. Brown and Benjamin L. Hall, Aids. 

National Band, T. W. Hedley, Leader. 

Seven hundred jewelers with badges, drab gloves and light reed canes. 

Howard & Son, sixty men, with red badges. 

Nickerson & Co., forty men. > 

Luther Brothers, fifty men, " What Cheer" badges, preceded by Arnold Post 
Drum Corps. 

EXHIBITS OF JEWELRY TRADE. 

Luther Brothers, two-horse barouche and four-horse dray; the barouche contained 
members of the firm and guests; the exhibit on the dray was essentially of merchan- 
dise in boxes packed in rows, the load crowned with a view on canvas of the landing 
of Roger Williams; bunting at 6ides and corners with other decoration. 

S. B. Champlin Si Son, party-wagon drawn by four horses, containing representa- 
tives of the firm, and decorated with bunting, signs and emblems of the firm. 

D. & M. Bruhl, diamonds, single horse wagon of flowers in design of an obelisk; 
blossoms of flowers, indigenous and exotic, in one large mass; purple immortelles 
were made into the dates 1636 on one side and 1886 on the other, while pinks, roses 
and others formed the four rising banks ; signs of old gold were hanging at the sides 
and end; the design was sixteen feet in height. 

Fred. I. Marcy & Co., four-horse team containing trade-mark of firm, American 
bald eagle, and sample of Acme lever button ; the team was decorated with bunting 
and flags in national colors ; the American bald eagle had a perch over the driver; the 
monstrous Acme lever button was about eight feet in height and showed the advantage 
of the patent by lever in condition for adjustment to cuff; employes were riding, deep 
in flowers and bunting. 

J. A. Charnley, covered wagon, decorated with small flags. 

Pearce & Hoagland, wagon, decorated with bunting and showing red banner with 
gold pick and pen. 

J. W. McCoull, two-horse team, containing cloth-covered frame work, bearings 
signs of furnaces sold by the firm, and decorated with flags and bunting. 

Horace Remington, two-horse dray containing smelting furnace with seven work- 
men conducting the process of smelting; all the apparatus of gold and silver refinery 
in sight; the whole, horses and framework, ornamented with flowers and bunting. 

Foster & Bailey, party-wagon drawn by eight horses containing fifty representa- 
tives of the firm, decorated with signs and bunting, surmounted by advertising design 
of the Mount Hope sleeve button. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 225 

Charles Downs, two-horse barouche containing members of the house, with n 
huge gold-headed cane and flags. 

Brown & Dorchester, four decorated horses, open barouche, containing members 
of the house and others, and an unique arch sign and one of the firm's specialty lock- 
ets pendant from seat to seat. 

Hamilton & Hamilton, Jr., open barouche containing members of the firm, with 
gold advertising watch chains across, bar lockets, etc., attached. 

Hutchison & Huestis, barouche with decorated horses, containing the firm and 
bearing the sign, " Solid Gold Rings." Nine carriages containing manufacturers of 
jewelry. 

DRY GOODS. 

Shepard & Company, two drays; the first drawn by four decorated horses, con- 
taining manufactory of the Boland Company, seven men at work on shoes, with mer- 
chandise, and the whole decorated with red, white and blue bunting; the second drawn 
by four decorated horses and decorated with bunting. 

Callender, McAuslan Si Troup, six delivery wagons, horses and wagons orna- 
mented with touches of red, white and blue, driven in order by Edward Cokeley, John 
O'Neil, Charles O'Neil, William E. Slattery, Stephen Lyons and E. A. Manning. 

B. H. Gladding & Co., dray drawn by four horses in white coverings trimmed 
with red, and bearing a lofty standard exhibiting dry goods ; the seat of the driver was 
beneath a canopy of wine velveting; the standard had banks of dress goods in light 
colors rising to it, and showed at every point handkerchiefs, embroidered goods, fans, 
ribbons, children's dresses, etc. 

Hartwell, Richards & Co., large dray of merchandise surmounted by a solid arch 
of goods worked into emblems of the celebration at the sides and elsewhere, showing 
ingenious ornaments ; a second wagon contained merchandise and was decorated with 
bunting. 

JEWELRY, WATCHES, ETC. 

William E. Taber & Son, wagon with marble French clock, decorated with bunt- 
ing and flags. 

HAIR WORK MANUFACTURERS. 

Samuel H. Flagg, two horses tandem ; team containing hair work manufactory and 
four persons engaged in the work ; exhibit of wigs on the heads and other devices, 
decorations of bunting and signs. 
29 



2 26 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



CLOTHING. 

Jerome Kennedy & Co., four-horse team decorated with red, white, blue and starred 
bunting, containing active small boys with drums, and banner with advertisement of 
the firm. 

Edward C. Almy & Co., four coal-black steeds attached to covered barouche, with 
light touches of color for ornamentation. 

FAXCY GOODS. 
Murray, Spink & Co., three drays; the first drawn by four horses with draperies 
of red and white trimmings, and containing a gigantic " Ideal " cigar, twenty-seven 
feet long, representatives of the house inside, bales of Havana tobacco and domestic 
tobacco in strippings; the second dray was drawn by four horses with white draperies 
and blue trimming, and contained an open warehouse of merchandise, with peaked 
roof advertising the Tally-Ho shirt and Globe umbrella ; the third dray was drawn 
by four horses in blue drapery, white trimmings, containing a large golden eagle on 
perch in front, and a lofty display of glass showcases, arranged in very tasty shape 
for exhibition. 

PAPER BOXES. 

Young Brothers, four-horse party-wagon, all decorated, and containing girls at 
work, showing inside of paper box shop. 

PATENT MEDICINES. 

Hunt's Remedy, four-horse team with a large cloth-covered frame bearing adver- 
tisements, and containing merchandise in boxes, decorated with bunting. 

Whitney Medicine Company, four-horse team carrying cloth frame-work showing 
signs, etc.; bunting and flags. 

RUBBER. 

Providence Rubber Store, two-horse team decorated with bunting, and bearing 
rubber goods of various sorts, comprising water hose, boots, coats, etc. ; a striking 
exhibit. 

PHOTOGRAPHY. 
William E. Potter, trade wagon with decorations. 
Arthur M. Hodge, trade wagon decorated with flags and emblems of trade. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 227 



PAPER MANUFACTURER. 

Davis Paper Company, wagon decorated with bunting and Hags, and containing 
many fashions of paper work for use and adornment. 

FOURTH DIVISION. 

Marshal, Amos M. Bowen. 
Aids, George M. Starkweather and Fred. A. Sutton, mounted. 

EXPRESS COMPANIES. 

Adams Express Company, twenty light wagons and drays decorated and led by 
two drays hung with bunting, and drawn by handsome spans. 
The New Express Company, two light wagons. 
J. Taylor's Express, one light wagon. 

RAILROADS. 

The New York, Providence and Boston Road was represented by a full-sized 
locomotive made of wood with tender, the " Roger Williams," bearing date 1S36, being 
a representation of the first locomotive on the line, drawn by four horses ; also by one 
of the old freight cars, over fifty years old, to represent its freight department. 

The Providence and Worcester Road was represented in its freight department 
by a large freight car on a dray, in actual process of construction, drawn by eight 
horses tandem and a pair. 

The Union Horse Railroad was represented by a " bloomer" car on a low gear, in 
actual process of construction, with blacksmith forge and anvil in use in the work; 
drawn by four pairs handsome horses. 

BOATS. 

George H. Merritt, modelerand builder, was represented by a model of a full-rigged 
ship, the" G. H. Merritt," and a schooner yacht, the " Nettie," carried on a light 
wagon. 

P. B. Warren, yacht and boat builder, a full-sized four-oared boat, trimmed with 
flags. 

PIANOS. 

M. Steinert & Sons, two teams, one of six black horses in pairs drawing a car gay 
with bunting, enriched with busts of female figures, and within aSteinway, Weber and 
Gabler piano, on which concerts were given during the parade. Over the roof of this 
car were inscribed the names of the cities where the Steinert branch houses are 



228 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



located, and the makes of instruments for which they are the agents. The other team 
was of two pairs of horses drawing a dray bearing piano boxed for delivery. 



HARNESS. 



Thomas W. Rounds &Co., North Main street, represented by a barouche drawn 
by four handsome dark bay animals, with superb harness, with liveried coachman and 
footman. The motto of the team was, " There is nothing in the world like leather." 






BAKERS. 

Messrs. Rice & Hayward, with Superintendent George W. Smith and Harry Field, 
rode in a carryall at the head of a turnout of four double teams of the firm and thirteen 
single teams, making an attractive display. 

Lewis A. Copeland was represented by a " model oven " on a dray, and four bakers 
in white making and baking Copeland's bread ; also by a light wagon bearing a mam- 
moth model of a loaf of bread surmounted by a sheaf of wheat; also by four light 
delivery wagons. 

John H. Althans' German bakery was represented by five single delivery teams. 

Underwood's Domestic Bakery, a light wagon bearing a barrel and a huge loaf 
of bread adorned with flags. 

Ware & Fox, pie bakers, one double and two single teams. 

Daniel J. Seymour, three single teams. 

Edward Fitzpatrick, one wagon. 

YEAST. 

Fleischmann & Co. were represented by one two-wheel delivery wagon, and 
five new two-wheel carts, all the drivers in white jackets. 

INSURANCE. 

Samuel Shove & Sons, "the oldest insurance agency in Rhode Island, represent- 
ing $32,000,000 ;" carriage drawn by four horses, and bearing Messrs. Samuel Shove, 
H. M. Shove, George E. Bullock and Joseph S. Pryor. 

PRINTERS. 

J. A. & R. A. Reid, a dray bearing a section of the "composing room" in 
operation, the printers setting type, and also a dray bearing job printing presses 
manufactured by George M. Cruickshank; also bearing an old-time printing press 
from the office of Angell & Co., one of the oldest presses in existence, and run by 
the veteran printer, S. S. Wilson, who divided his time between taking impressions 
on the old press and " bossing" a model " devil." 

David P. Buker, Jr., was represented by a job press in operation. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 2 29 



1IA1R DRESSERS. 
Albert H. Clinton, Narragansett Hotel Hair Dressing Parlors ; all the workmen in 
an English tally-ho coach. 

ENGRAVERS. 
Livermore & Knight made an attractive display of their work in frames mounted 
on a Surrey wagon covered with red, white and bine bunting and drawn by three 
horses in tandem, accompanied by uniformed lackeys. 

FLAVORING EXTRACTS. 
The Queene Anne Bouquet Perfumes, C. E. Nichols, were represented by the 
familiar wagon and the red setter dog; the wagon was gaily trimmed, and bore the 
dates, " 1636-1886." 

Lyman E. Henry, team with flavoring extracts. 

FLORISTS. 
Frederick A. Fairbrother, handsome display of a grotto of flowers and green. 
Dodge & Cole, design of swinging floral pieces bearing their name; also a flora, 
bell and a body work of potted plants. 

FIFTH DIVISION. 

Marshal, William Millen. 

Aids, Charles S. Petiee, Hobart L. Gates. 

Silver Spring Bleaching and Dyeing Company, three teams, fourteen horses and 

twenty men, with men on each side leading the horses by gay-colored ribbons. The 

first team contained goods in the grey, as received at the works the secon tea* .con- 

tamed the finished goods, and the third the goods as packed and ready for sh.pment. 

The Providence Dyeing, Bleaching and Calendering Company two teams and 
seven horses. 

The Richmond Manufacturing Company, one team and six horses. 
Brown Brothers, display of mill supplies ; two large teams and four horses. 
The Providence Belting Company, one team of goods. 

E. G. Baker, drugs, one team with one horse, and a creditable display of goods. 
R. Richardson, display of metals ; two teams and twelve horses. 
Hazard & Chapin, tower of raw cotton, drawn by six horses. 

James P. Rhodes, Deming & Reynolds, Daniel Remington & Son, Hazard & 
Chapin, Richard H. Deming &Son, Thomas A. Randall, Simon W. Simmons, Arthur 
W Dennis, Henry L. Aldrich, Richmond & Tiffany, display of cotton. 



23O TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

Starkweather & Williams, drugs, paints and oils, one team, four horses. 

John D. Lewis, dye woods, three teams, twelve horses. 

George L. Claflin & Co., one team, four horses. 

William B. Blanding, two teams, drugs and chemicals, two horses. 

O. A. Taft & Co., starch, one team, two horses. 

Hopkins, Pomroy & Co., eight teams and twenty-four horses, with display of 
coal. 

The Providence Coal Company, one wagon drawn by nine horses, display of coal. 

Robert B. Little & Co., coal dealers, seventy men on foot, including half a score 
of clerks bearing mammoth pens as big as cavalry lances, with a bottle of ink capable 
of holding any one of the clerks borne behind them. 

Hiram K. Stevens, coal and wood, three teams, three horses. 

Phetteplace & Co., oils; one team, two horses. 

Peerless Oil Company, one team, two horses. 

The American Oil Stove Company, one team. 

James A. Potter & Co., lumber, one team. 

Joseph B. Gurney & Co., lumber, one team. 

Charles P. Darling & Co., boxes, two teams, three horses. 

Messrs Angell & Barney, hay and grain, three teams, four horses. 

Theodore V. Matteson, hay and grain, three teams, five horses. 

Munroe & Osier, hay and grain, one team, four horses. 

William S. Fifield, hay and grain, three teams, five horses. 

Eben G. Robinson, hay and grain, four teams, four horses. 

Manchester & Hudson, building materials, three teams, four horses. 

James C. Goff, building materials, two teams, two horses. 

Providence Brown Stone Company, one team, four horses. 

John Loughrey, carpenter, one team, two horses. 

Samuel A. Bennett, carpenter, one team, one horse. 

Nelson Titus, building mover, three teams, twenty-two horses, one wagon bearing 
house on rollers in progress of moving. 

Gustavus T. Gray, barrels, one team, one horse. 

William H. Nichols, barrels, two teams, six horses. 

J. L. Brooks, barrels, two teams, four horses. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 23 1 



sixth division: 

Marshal, D. Russell Brown. 
Aids, Charles E. Giles and Martin L. Carey. 
Corliss Steam Engine Company, one heavy eight-horse truck with a working 
model of the Corliss high duty pumping engine, now in its fifth year of service for 
the city at Pettaconsett, which was set in motion as the wagon moved ; also a segment 
of the sixty-ton gear fly which was lately completed for the Pacific Mills, Lawrence, 
Massachusetts. 

Corliss Safe Manufacturing Company, large truck drawn by eight horses contain- 
ing two of the Corliss burglar proof safes of the well-known spherical model ; also a 
brass minature safe upon a pedestal. 

William A. Harris Engine Company; a four-horse low gear bearing a rectangular 
frame work, on which was painted on cloth an old-fashioned, overshot water wheel on 
one-third the horizontal space, and a Harris Corliss engine in the remaining two- 
thirds. Legend. " Contrast — Power of ye olden time with power of to-day." 

Congdon, Carpenter & Co., one four-horse wagon and two single teams. 
In the first was pig tin, lead, iron, copper, zinc, horse and mule shoes and corrugated 
galvanized iron conductor. The second wagon contained a forge and wheels, and 
the third horse, covers and covers for wagons. 

American Screw Company, three two-horse wagons and two single ones, loaded 
with wire rods, cases of screws, fence wire, paper boxes of screws, coach screw iron 
and kegs of nails and rivets. 

Franklin Machine Company, four-horse wagon containing a wadding card and 
railway head, pulleys, gears, shafting and hangers. 

Thomas Phillips & Co., a four-horse low gear carpeted in the national colors, upon 
which was a monument of conico-cylindrical form, resting upon a sheet copper 
base of about three feet in height and of ornamental design. The tapering column 
was formed of a coil of lead pipe and was surmounted by a copper ball and socket, in 
which was a staff carrying a silken design. 

The Steadman & Fuller Manufacturing Company, one four-horse wagon and one 
single wagon. The first contained a pile of leather belting in sacking and was 
covered by a canopy. The second had card clothing and machinery. 

The Rhode Island Tool Company, a long two-horse wagon in which was a wooden 
frame triangular in section and carrying a large variety of the products of the com- 
pany, including nuts, thimbles, cleats, riggers, tools, caulkers, tools and mallets, pulley 
blocks, etc., both plain and galvanized. 

Household Sewing Machine Company, six wagons, two double. In the first 
wagon, which was carpeted, were three machines. A woman made little aprons as 



232 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 



the line moved. The other wagons contained a revolving sign, goods to be japanned 
and goods boxed for shipping. 

Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine Company, six single wagons. 

Lorenzo Stone, a wagon filled with japanned goods, including a bicycle and two 
sewing machines, one treated with white enamel. 

William E. Barrett & Co., eight teams. A four-horse dray had plows, cultivator, 
cider mill, corn shellers, barrows, presses, ox yokes and fertilizers. The second had 
all kinds of small tools displayed on a framework; the third an assortment of wooden 
ware. Then followed Kemp's manure spreader, the National swivel sulky plow, the 
Buckeye mowing machine, a Bui lard hay tedder and a Yankee horse rake. 

William H. Miller, blacksmith, a four-horse dray with a house built upon it. A 
Cruickshank engine operated a Beaudry & Cunningham power hammer, and at this 
and a Buffalo forge a number of men were kept busy at machine and tool forging. 

The Towel Rack and Novelty Company, display of towel and hat racks, and within 
a little house a man and a girl were at work putting together racks. 

Thomas Wyatt's New England Chain Works, team on which was an open-sided 
house with the posts trimmed with chains. Within was a forge and anvil at which a 
man made chains. The traces and reins of this exhibit were of chains. 

American Ship Windlass Company, ten metal models under glass of steam and 
power windlassess and capstans, and on a low gear crank and bar capstans of various 
sizes. 

William Millen, two large wagons bearing the Magee Boston heater and the 
Magee champion furnace. 

Gilmore's trunk store, one wagon with trunks. 

Pettis & Higgins, four wagons filled with all varieties of old metals. 

Porter Brothers, section of a carriage workshop on a four-horse gear. There was 
a wheel in process of construction, the latest style of phaeton buggy body, upon 
which painters and finishers were at work, and a forge with men ironing the buggy. 
Following this was one of the new patent gear wagons, built by this firm, with steel 
axles, improved hanging and low body. 

Jame6 H. Onslow & Co., wagon of plumbers' supplies, steam and gas fittings, 
faucets and gauges. 

William Kelso, safe mover, a four-horse dray with a dummy safe suspended from 
a derrick. The fall from the three-fold tackle led to a wincli at the tail of the gear. 

Narragansett Machine Company, a wagon with foot-power saw, common lathe 
and double-action 6crew-cutting lathe. 

Ephraim W. French, agent, sash, doors and blinds, iS Eddy street, wagon with 
advertising card. 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 



Lorenzo Vaughn & Co., two wagons with blinds, windows, stair posts, brackets 
with workmen making sash and blinds. 

Arnold & McGowan, two wagons with glass in boxes and window sashes. 

George M. Freeborn & Co., two wagons with painters neatly uniformed, paints, 
steps and staging rigging. 

Rhode Island Wire Works, two wagons of poultry yard wire netting. 

Edward R. Crowell & Co., two wagons, the second an eight-horse party van, 
containing thirty painters in working garb. 

Hamlin Johnson & Co., a large wagon with farming implements and a large 
horn of plenty running over with vegetables; a horse hay tedder and a horse rake. 

Providence Artificial Drain, Well and Chimney Pipe Works, three wagons, first 
bearing three sections of well pipe surmounted by a curb; the others bearing broad 
platforms, which were sodded, and in these were growing plants, garden vases of ferns 
and garden beds with artificial stone coping. 

Combination Ladder Company, seven wagons. First, a butterfly cart, all banners ; 
then six wagons loaded with ladders, settees, lap tables, rustic chairs, ironing benches, 
sleds, snow shovels, splint and rattan chairs and folding canvas chairs. 

E. Chappell, one wagon filled with farm produce. 

Macauley Brothers had a tin house on wheels with corrugated iron pipe con- 
ductors crossed on the sides. 

Waldo E. Barnes, dead animal department, five wagons and covered ambulances. 



SEVENTH DIVISION. 

Marshal, Frank B. Butts. 

Aids, George M. Joslin and Stephen O. Metcalf. 

Cory Brothers, four-horse team containing Kranach and Bach Parlor organ. 

W. F. Knapp, American Hop Beer, three teams decorated with bunting and flags. 

Steere Brothers, root, white and hop beer team tastefully decorated with flags 
and bunting. 

Starkweather & Williams, drugs, paints and oils, low gear with bunting, flags and 
streamers. 

Thomas Furlong, furniture dealer, three teams, six men. 

Flint & Co., heavy six-horse team, decorated in fanciful design with flags and 
bunting, with Palace refrigerators. 

Michael Foy, furniture mover, decorated dray. 

Barstow Stove Company, wagon built in 1836, containing stove of the pattern of 
1849, representing the Providence department of the works. Two-horse team repre- 
30 



2 34 TW0 HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH 

senting the Boston department of the Barstow Stove Company, containing Bay State 
furnaces Nos.46and 52. Double team representing New York department Barstow 
& Co., containing No. 44 Art Garland stove, No. 2 Round Bay State Parlor stove, 
No. 3 Art Garland stove, No. 18 Union Bay State stove, No. 44 Wrought Iron Porta- 
ble Bay State furnace. 

Thomas & John Sawyer, furniture dealers, two teams decorated with flags and 
bunting. 

Belcher & Loomis, wagon containing hardware exhibit, electrical appliances, etc. 
Providence Steam Carpet Beating Company, one team. Second team with 
placard representing old and new methods of cleaning carpets. 

Burdick Brothers, team containing exhibit of furniture and refrigerators. 
Troy Laundry, Washington street branch. 
Troy Laundry, Chapel street, two teams. 
Providence Steam Laundry, one team. 

Henry P. Clough, piano mover, four-horse team decorated with flags and bunting. 
Henry Lindsey & Co., team containing exhibit of scissors, hinges, locks and 
general hardware, etc. 

John H. Eddy & Co., team containing exhibit of baskets, pails and brooms. 
Great Overland and Pacific Tea Company, one team. 

Celestial Tea Company, three teams with chests of tea and bags of coffee. 
Providence Wall Paper Company, two-horse team decorated, from which the pro- 
prietor, Christopher H. Cady distributed five thousand curtains. 
Wagon representing the Bethel Coffee House. 

William H. Fenner & Co., wagon containing furnaces, ranges, refrigerators, etc. 
Hong Kong Tea House, one team. 

Charles H. George & Co., large team decorated with flags and bunting, and con- 
taining a large safe. 

C. C. Heintzeman & Co., three teams decorated, containing pianos and organs 
in cases. 

Farren Brothers, rolling bed spring manufacturers, double team richly decorated. 

Ira N. Goff, two teams containing pianos and organs. 

Walter H. Wood, picture frame dealer, decorated team. 

Providence Sewer Department, in charge of Allen Aldrich, Superintendent : 

Wagon containing centrifugal pump; 

Team containing steam boiler for thawing purposes; 

Team containing rotary steam engine; 

Hose carriage ; 



ANNIVERSARY OF PROVIDENCE. 235 

Portable boiler; 

Syphons, pulsometers; 

Portable apparatus for cleaning house connections. 
Highway Department, ten teams, single and double, including one two-horse and 
one four-horse watering carts and two street sweepers. 
Lamp Department, two teams decorated. 

The route of march of the military and civic procession 
was from Market square through Westminster and Jackson 
streets, Broadway, Baker avenue, High, Summer, Broad and 
Weybosset streets, Market square, South Main, Power, Bene- 
fit, Meeting, North Main and Steeple streets to Exchange place, 
where the column passed in review before the Chief Marshal 
and staff and was then dismissed. 

The route of march of the trades procession was from 
Market square through Westminster and Jackson streets, 
Broadway, Baker avenue, High, Bridgham, Broad, Weybosset, 
North Main, Smith and Canal streets to Exchange place. 

Both processions were reviewed by His Honor the Acting 
Mayor from a grand stand erected on Broadway at the corner 
of Sutton street. The committee of arrangements of the City 
Council, members of the Board of Aldermen and Common 
Council, His Excellency the Governor and general staff, and 
members of the General Assembly and others, participated in 
the review. 

A drizzling rain somewhat marred the festivities of the 
day, though both processions were but slightly affected in 
numbers, nor were but few exhibits withdrawn on account of 
the weather. 

The military and civic procession numbered 7,609 men, 
and was an hour in passing the reviewing stand. 



236 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY. 

In the afternoon a balloon ascension was made from the 
Dexter Training Field by James K. Allen. 

At six o'clock in the afternoon the veteran firemen of the 
city engaged in a trial of the old hand engines known as 
Ocean 7 and Gaspee 9 on Exchange place. 

The grand display of fireworks which was to have taken 
place from the Crawford street bridge in the evening was nec- 
essarily postponed on account of the rain, and with this ex- 
ception the programme arranged by the committee was fully 
carried out. 

The large number of people who thronged the streets 
during both days of the celebration, and the elaborate decora- 
tions of buildings and private residences, fully attested the 
great interest which all classes manifested in the celebration 
of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary, while the re- 
unions which were held, and the courtesies that were shown 
to the many visiting organizations, will be perpetuated in story 
and song to mark the greatest epoch since the settlement of 
Providence. 






J 928 






J> 









LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



0014 1133755